Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 155–165 | Cite as

Effect of Operating Conditions on the Coke Formation and Nickel Catalyst Performance During Cracking of Tar

  • Peng Lu
  • Qunxing HuangEmail author
  • Athanasios C. Bourtsalas
  • Yong Chi
  • Jianhua Yan
Original Paper


Catalytic cracking of toluene as a tar model compound was carried out to investigate the effect of operating conditions on the coke formation and performance of nickel catalyst. The deactivation of catalyst depended on the quantity and nature of deposited coke, which were affected by the operating conditions, including temperature, nickel and steam concentration. The highest yield ratio of filamentous coke to the amorphous coke was 1.11 with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst containing the highest amount of Ni examined, 20%, and heated at 700 °C without steam injection. The formation of filamentous coke maintained the catalyst activity at the first 20 min, which had less serious effect on the deactivation than the amorphous coke. Two types of coke deactivation trends were observed. Type I was associated with the deactivation by amorphous coke and type II was due to the corporate effects of amorphous and filamentous coke, which extended the life time of the catalyst.


Tar Ni catalyst Operating conditions Coke Activity 



The authors would like to greatly acknowledge the Environmental Protection Special Funds for Public Welfare (201509013) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peng Lu
    • 1
  • Qunxing Huang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Athanasios C. Bourtsalas
    • 2
  • Yong Chi
    • 1
  • Jianhua Yan
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy UtilizationZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Earth Engineering CenterColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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