Advertisement

Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 179–186 | Cite as

Properties of Particleboard Manufactured from Oil Palm Trunk Waste Using Polylactic Acid as a Natural Binder

  • Mohana Baskaran
  • Rokiah HashimEmail author
  • Othman Sulaiman
  • Mohd Fahmi Awalludin
  • Kumar Sudesh
  • Takamitsu Arai
  • Akihiko Kosugi
Original Paper
  • 150 Downloads

Abstract

Particleboard from renewal agricultural residues or waste offers a significant effect toward ecological problem. However, hygroscopic nature of waste material contributes to a lower dimensional stability and lower strength properties in comparison to conventional particleboard. Therefore, the objective of this study was to convert oil palm waste, namely oil palm trunk, into particleboard with the addition of polylactic acid (PLA), a type of biodegradable thermoplastic, as a natural binder. Particleboard of oil palm trunk made with a target density of 0.8 g/cm3, at a pressing temperature of 180 °C, a pressing time of 20 min, and a pressure of 5 MPa was added with 10% of PLA. The PLA was added into different thickness particleboards, namely 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm. The mechanical and physical properties of particleboards with the addition of PLA in comparison to binderless particleboards made from oil palm trunk were then evaluated. Thus, thermal degradation, spectroscopic characterization, crystallinity properties, and morphological properties of such types of boards were also examined. The mechanical properties, such as modulus of rupture and internal bond strength, and physical properties, such as thickness swelling and water absorption, had significantly improved with the addition of PLA compared to binderless particleboard. Particleboard with the addition of PLA exhibited satisfactory mechanical properties based on Japanese Industrial Standard for Particleboard Type 8. The thermal stability, spectroscopic characterization, crystallinity, and morphological results indicated that the addition of PLA improved the basic properties of the particleboards made of oil palm trunk.

Keywords

Waste Oil palm trunk Particleboard Polylactic acid Mechanical 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors express their gratitude to The Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for MyBrain15 scholarship to Mohana Baskaran. Partial funding for this project provided by The Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (304/PTEKIND/650612/J118) and ERGS (203/PTEKIND/6730054) is appreciated. Assistance in raw material supply by Kuala Lumpur Kepong, Bhd. Northern Branch is also acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Nonaka, S., Umemura, K., Kawai, S.: Characterization of bagasse binderless particleboard manufactured in high-temperature range. J. Wood Sci. 59(1), 50–56 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Widyorini, R., Xu, J., Umemura, K., Kawai, S.: Manufacture and properties of binderless particleboard from bagasse I: effects of raw material type, storage methods, and manufacturing process. J. Wood Sci. 51(6), 648–654 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Dam, J.E.G., Van den Oever, M.J.A., Keijsers, E.R.P., Van der Putten, J.C., Anayron, C., Josol, F., Peralta, A.: Process for production of high density/high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk: part 2: coconut husk morphology, composition and properties. Ind. Crops Prod. 24(2), 96–104 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saito, Y., Ishii, M., Sato, M.: The suitable harvesting season and the part of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) for producing binderless boards. Wood Sci. Technol. 47(5), 1071–1081 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luo, H., Yue, L., Wang, N.W., Zhang, H.Y., Lu, X.N.: Manufacture of binderless fiberboard made from bamboo processing residues by steam explosion pretreatment. Wood Res. 59(5), 861–870 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Okuda, N., Sato, M.: Manufacture and mechanical properties of binderless boards from kenaf core. J. Wood Sci. 50(1), 53–61 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu, J., Widyorini, R., Yamauchi, H., Kawai, S.: Development of binderless fiberboard from kenaf core. J. Wood Sci. 52(3), 236–243 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Panyakaew, S., Fotios, S.: New thermal insulation boards made from coconut husk and bagasse. Energy Build. 43(7), 1732–1739 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fiorelli, J., Gomide, C.A., Lahr, F.A.R., do Nascimento, M.F., de Lucca Sartori, D., Ballesteros, J.E.M., Bueno, S.B., Belini, U.L.: Physico-chemical and anatomical characterization of residual lignocellulosic fibers. Cellulose. 21(5), 3269–3277 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yusoff, S.: Renewable energy from palm oil–innovation on effective utilization of waste. J Clean. Prod. 14(1), 87–93 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murai, K., Uchida, R., Okubo, A., Kondo, R.: Characterization of the oil palm trunk as a material for bio-ethanol production. Mokuzai Gakkaishi. 55(6), 346–355 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hashim, R., Nadhari, W., Sulaiman, O., Kawamura, F., Hiziroglu, S., Sato, M., Sugimoto, T., Seng, T.G., Tanaka, R.: Characterization of raw materials and manufactured binderless particleboard from oil palm biomass. Mater. Des. 32(1), 246–254 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hashim, R., Nadhari, W.N.A.W., Sulaiman, O., Sato, M., Hiziroglu, S., Kawamura, F., Sugimoto, T., Seng, T.G., Tanaka, R.: Properties of binderless particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm biomass. BioResources. 7(1), 1352–1365 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anglès, M.N., Reguant, J., Montane, D., Ferrando, F., Farriol, X., Salvadó, J.: Binderless composites from pretreated residual softwood. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 73(12), 2485–2491 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Umemura, K., Sugihara, O., Kawai, S.: Investigation of a new natural adhesive composed of citric acid and sucrose for particleboard II: effects of board density and pressing temperature. J. Wood Sci. 61(1), 40–44 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lamaming, J., Sulaiman, O., Sugimoto, T., Hashim, R., Said, N., Sato, M.: Influence of chemical components of oil palm on properties of binderless particleboard. BioResources. 8(3), 3358–3371 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roffael, E., Dix, B., Okum, J.: Use of spruce tannin as a binder in particleboards and medium density fiberboards (MDF). Eur. J. Wood Wood Prod. 58(5), 301–305 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baskaran, M., Hashim, R., Said, N., Raffi, S.M., Balakrishnan, K., Sudesh, K., Sulaiman, O., Arai, T., Kosugi, A., Yutaka, M.: Properties of binderless particleboard from oil palm trunk with addition of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Compos. Part B. 43(3), 1109–1116 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baskaran, M., Hashim, R., Sudesh, K., Sulaiman, O., Hiziroglu, S., Arai, T., Kosugi, A.: Influence of steam treatment on the properties of particleboard made from oil palm trunk with addition of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ind. Crops Prod. 51, 334–341 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wahit, M.U., Akos, N.I., Laftah, W.A.: Influence of natural fibers on the mechanical properties and biodegradation of poly (lactic acid) and poly (ε-caprolactone) composites: a review. Polym. Compos. 33(7), 1045–1053 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baskaran, M., Hashim, R., Sulaiman, O., Hiziroglu, S., Sato, M., Sugimoto, T.: Optimization of press temperature and time for binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk biomass at different thickness levels. Mater. Today Commun. 3, 87–95 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang, S.L., Wu, Z.H., Yang, W., Yang, M.B.: Thermal and mechanical properties of chemical crosslinked polylactide (PLA). Polym. Test. 27(8), 957–963 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    JIS. JIS A 5908–2003 Particleboards: (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Segal, L., Creely, J., Martin, A., Conrad, C.: An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Text Res. J. 29(10), 786–794 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ikada, Y., Tsuji, H.: Biodegradable polyesters for medical and ecological applications. Macromol Rapid Commun. 21(3), 117–132 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saheb, D.N., Jog, J.P.: Natural fiber polymer composites: a review. Adv. Polym. Technol. 18(4), 351–363 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Basiron, Y., Husin, M.: Availability, extraction and economics of oil palm biomass utilisation. In: Proceeding of the Fourth National Seminar on Oil Palm Tree Utilization Committee (OPTUC) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1997)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lamaming, J., Hashim, R., Sulaiman, O., Sugimoto, T., Sato, M., Hiziroglu, S.: Measurement of some properties of binderless particleboards made from young and old oil palm trunks. Measurement. 47, 813–819 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Laemsak, N., Okuma, M.: Development of boards made from oil palm frond II: properties of binderless boards from steam-exploded fibers of oil palm frond. J. Wood Sci. 46(4), 322–326 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Okuda, N., Sato, M.: Bond durability of kenaf core binderless boards I: two-cycle accelerated aging boil test. J. Wood Sci. 53(2), 139–142 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sakina, H., Sarani, Z., Khairul, D.: Oil palm biomass: opportunities and challenges in commercial exploitation. In: Symposium on Utilisation of Oil Palm Tree. Kuala Lumpur (2000)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhuiyan, M.T.R., Hirai, N., Sobue, N.: Changes of crystallinity in wood cellulose by heat treatment under dried and moist conditions. J. Wood Sci. 46(6), 431–436 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohana Baskaran
    • 1
  • Rokiah Hashim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Othman Sulaiman
    • 1
  • Mohd Fahmi Awalludin
    • 1
  • Kumar Sudesh
    • 2
  • Takamitsu Arai
    • 3
  • Akihiko Kosugi
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Bioresource, Paper and Coatings Technology, School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia
  2. 2.Ecobiomaterial Research Laboratory, School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia
  3. 3.Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)TsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations