Advertisement

MAPAN

pp 1–7 | Cite as

Measurement of Benzo(a)pyrene in PM10 Collected in New Delhi

  • Jyoti Pokhariyal
  • Anubha MandalEmail author
  • Shankar G. Aggarwal
Short Communication
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the compound which consists of multiple benzene rings bonded in straight, groups or angular forms. They are also found in atmospheric aerosols. In the atmosphere, they can be emitted primarily as a result of incomplete combustion of natural sources (fossil fuels, forest fires, smoke etc.) or anthropogenic sources (coal burning, vehicular emissions, smoke, etc.) or secondarily by atmospheric processes. Depending on the anthropogenic sources, PAHs may occur in significant concentration in urban and industrial ambient air, i.e., bounded with particulate matter (PM). A particle whose aerodynamic diameter is ≤ 10 µm is called PM10. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is among the most toxic and carcinogenic PAHs. Both PM10 and BaP are among the 12 criteria pollutants listed in Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). In this paper, BaP concentration in PM10 collected in a representative site of New Delhi was studied during the year 2014–2015. The average concentration of BaP is varied from 0.04 to 25.7 ng m−3. The uncertainty components in measurements were also estimated along with statistical analysis. The most significant uncertainty component is the purity of the BaP standard which has the highest uncertainty contribution as 77%.

Keywords

NAAQS PM10 PAHs Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the Director, NPL for providing experimental facilities and support for the research work. JP is thankful to Prof. S.K. Singh, Head, Environmental Engineering Department, Delhi Technological University for providing the research opportunity.

References

  1. [1]
    K.H. Kim, S.A. Jahan, K. Ehsanul and R.J.C. Brown, A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects, Environ. Int., 60 (2013) 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. Latimer and J. Zheng, The sources, transport, and fate of PAH in the marine environment. P.E.T. Douben Eds.; PAHs: an ecotoxicological perspective, Wiley, New York (2003).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. Arey and R. Atkinson, Photochemical reactions of PAH in the atmosphere. P.E.T. Douben Eds.; PAHs: an ecotoxicological perspective, Wiley, New York (2003) pp. 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    D.M. Di-Toro, J.A. McGrath and D.J. Hansen, Technical basis for narcotic chemicals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon criteria. I. Water and tissue, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 9 (2000) 1951–1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Y. Zhang and S. Tao, Global atmospheric emission inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004, Atmos. Environ., 43 (2009) 812–819.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    A.S. Brown, R. J.C. Brown, P. J. Coleman, C. Conolly, A. J. Sweetman, K.C. Jones, D.M. Butterfield, D. Sarantaridis, B.J. Donovan, and I. Roberts, Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks, Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts., 15 (2013) 1199–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    K.C. Jones, G. Grimmer, J. Jacob and A.E. Johnston, Changes in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content of wheat-grain and pasture grassland over the last century from one site in the UK, Sci. Total Environ., 78 (1989) 117–130.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity, IARC monogr. 42 (1987) 1–34.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Polynuclear aromatic compounds: Part 3, industrial exposures, IARC monogr. 34 (1984) 5–199.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    B. Maliszewska-Kordybach, Sources concentrations, fate and effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Part A: PAHs in air, Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 8 (1999) 131–136.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    C.B.B. Guerreiro, J. Horalek, F. de Leeuw and F.Couvidat, Benzo(a)pyrene in Europe: ambient air concentrations, population exposure and health effects, Environ. Pollut., 214 (2016) 657–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    C.B.B. Guerreiro, V. Foltescu and F. de Leeuw, Air quality status and trends in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 98 (2014) 376–384.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    N.S. Kasimov, N.E. Kosheleva, E.M. Nikiforova and D.V.Vlasov, Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17 (2017) 2217–2227.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    K.Widziewicz, W. Rogula-Kozło and G. Majewski, Lung cancer risk associated with exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene in polish agglomerations, cities and other areas, Int. J. Environ. Res., 11 (2017) 685–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    U.S. EPA, Determination of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in ambient air using high volume polyurethane foam (PUF) sampling followed by gas chromatographic/multi-detector detection (GC/MD), compendium method TO-4A, second edn, Cincinnati, OH (1999).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. Pokhariyal, A. Mandal and S.G. Aggarwal, Uncertainty estimation in PM10 mass measurements, MAPAN-J. Metrol. Soc India (2018) 1–5.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    S. Kumar, S. G. Aggarwal, P.K. Gupta, and K. Kawamura, Investigation of the tracers for plastic-enriched waste burning aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 108 (2015) 49–58.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    ISO 16362:2005(E), Ambient air - Determination of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high performance liquid chromatography, First edn, (2005) 2–15.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    ICH (International Conference for Harmonization), Validation of analytical procedures: methodology, adopted in Q2B, Geneva (1996).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    ISO/IEC 17025:2005(E), General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, Second edn, (2005) 5–15.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    S.K. Sharma, P. Agarwal, T.K. Mandal, S.G. Karapurkar, D.M. Shenoy, S.K. Peshin, A. Gupta, M. Saxena, S. Jain, and A. Sharma, Study on ambient air quality of megacity Delhi, India during odd–even strategy, MAPAN-J. Metrol. Soc India 32(2) (2017) 155–165.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    L.C. Guo, Y. Zhang, H. Lin, W. Zeng, T. Liu, J. Xiao, S. Rutherford, J. You and W. Ma, The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities. Environ. Pollut., 215 (2016) 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    J. Li, B.E. Carlson and A.A. Lacis, Application of spectral analysis techniques to the inter comparison of aerosol data—Part 4: Synthesized analysis of multi sensor satellite and ground-based AOD measurements using combined maximum covariance analysis, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7 (2014) 2531–2549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    A. Lakhani, Source apportionment of particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at an industrial location in Agra, India, Sci. World J., 2 (2012) 1–10.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    B.R. Gurjar, J.A. Aardenne van, J. Lelieveld and M. Mohan, Emission estimates and trends (1990–2000) for megacity Delhi and implications, Atmos. Environ., 38 (2004) 5663–5681.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    G.S. Saggu, S.K. Mittal, R. Agarwal and G. Beig, Epidemiological study on respiratory health of school children of rural sites of Malwa Region (India) during post-harvest stubble burning events, MAPAN-J. Metrol. Soc India, 33(3) (2018) 281–295.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    P. Di Vaio, B. Cocozziello, A. Corvino, F. Fiorino, F. Frecentese, E. Magli, G. Onorati, I. Saccone, V. Santagada, G. Settimo, B. Severino and E. Perissutti, Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples, Atmos. Environ., 129 (2016) 186–196.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    M.V.S.N. Prasad, C. Sharma, B.C. Arya, T.K. Mandal, S. Singh, M.J. Kulshrestha, R. Agnihotri, S.K. Mishra and S.K. Sharma, Experimental facilities to monitor various types of atmospheric parameters in the Radio and Atmospheric Sciences Division (RASD) of CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, MAPAN-J. Metrol. Soc India, 28(3) (2013) 193–203.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    L. Narayana Suvarapu and B. Sung-Ok, Review on the concentrations of Benzo[a]pyrene in the Indian environment since 1983, Polycycl. Aromat. Compd., 37 (2017) 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    S.G. Aggarwal, Recent developments in aerosol measurement techniques and the metrological issues, MAPAN-J. Metrol. Soc India, 25(3) (2010) 165–189.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    S.G. Aggarwal, S. Kumar, P. Mandal, B. Sarangi, K. Singh, J. Pokhariyal, S.K. Mishra, S. Agarwal, D. Sinha, S. Singh, C. Sharma and P.K. Gupta, Traceability issue in PM2.5 and PM10 measurements, MAPAN-J. Metrol. Soc India, 28(3) (2013) 153–166.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    P. Quincey, S. Beccaceci, D. Butterfield, D. Sarantaridis and J. Tompkins, Aerosol metrology supporting air quality monitoring in the United Kingdom and Europe, MAPAN-J. Metrol. Soc India, 28(3) (2013) 145–152.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Metrology Society of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jyoti Pokhariyal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anubha Mandal
    • 2
    Email author
  • Shankar G. Aggarwal
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Delhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations