p-Chloroamphetamine-Enhanced Neostriatal Dopamine Exocytosis in Rats Neonatally Co-lesioned with 6-OHDA and 5,7-DHT: Relevance to Parkinson’s Disease

  • John P. Kostrzewa
  • Richard M. KostrzewaEmail author
Original Article


Serotoninergic nerves are known to modulate sensitization of dopamine receptors (DA-R) in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, serotoninergic nerves are not known to have a prominent role on DA exocytosis in intact rats. The current study was undertaken to explore the possible influence of serotoninergic nerves on DA exocytosis in Parkinsonian rats. Rat pups were treated at 3 days after birth with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 134 μg icv, half into each lateral ventricle; desipramine, 1 h pretreatment), in order to produce marked long-lasting destruction of neostriatal dopaminergic innervation, as evidenced by the 90–95% depletion of DA (p < 0.001) [HPLC/ED] into adulthood. Controls received vehicle/desipramine in place of 6-OHDA. Other groups received the serotoninergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT; 25 μg base, icv, half in each lateral ventricle; desipramine, 1 h; 75 mg/kg pargyline HCl, 30 min) at 3 days post-birth; or both 6-OHDA+5,7-DHT treatments. In adulthood, an in vivo microdialysis study was undertaken to ascertain that p-chloroamphetamine (PCA, 1 mM in the microdialysate)-evoked DA release in the neostriatum was reduced approximately 50% in the 6-OHDA group, while PCA-evoked DA release in the 6-OHDA+5,7-DHT group was substantially increased, to a level equivalent to that of the vehicle control. The baseline neostriatal microdialysate level of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was also higher in the 6-OHDA+5,7-DHT group vs 6-OHDA group; also, during the 2nd hour of PCA infusion. PCA-enhanced DA exocytosis occurred in the absence of changes in hydroxyl radical (HO·) in the microdialysate (i.e., assay of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,3-DHBA; 2,5-DHBA). The overall findings demonstrate that an adulthood serotoninergic nerve lesion enhanced PCA-evoked DA exocytosis in a rodent model of severe PD, while susceptibility to oxidative stress was unchanged. The implication is that serotoninergic nerves may normally suppress the release of DA and/or act as an uptake site and storage sink for accumulated DA in parkinsonian-like neostriatum. Potentially, serotoninergic agonists or antagonists, targeting subtype-selective serotonin receptors, may be viable therapeutic adjuncts in PD.


Parkinson disease Dopamine Serotonin p-Chloroamphetamine 6-Hydroxydopamine 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine In vivo microdialysis Rats 



2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid


2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid


5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid


5-Hydroxytryptamine (seroronin)










Dopamine receptor


Dopamine receptor supersensitivity


3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid


Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid


Hydroxyl radical


High-performance liquid chromatography/electrochemical detection


Homovanillic acid




Neonatally administered 5,7-DHT


Neonatally administered 6-OHDA




Parkinson’s disease




Receptor supersensitivity


Funding information

This study was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, grant NS 39272.

Supplementary material

12640_2019_145_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (36 kb)
ESM 1 Schematic representation of in vivo microdialysis procedure. The microdialysis probe was surgically implanted in rat neostriatum one day prior to study. All subsequent experimental procedures were conducted in freely moving rats without anesthesia. On the day of study, and after acclimation, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA, 1 mM) was added to the microdialysate which contained 5 nM salicylic acid for enabling indirect analysis of HO●. Effluent was collected and analyzed by HPLC/ED for DA, DOPAC, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and HO● (PDF 187 kb).
12640_2019_145_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (37 kb)
ESM 2 Effect of PCA on DOPAC concentration of neostriatal microdialysates of (a) Saline control rats, (b) neonatally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, (c) neonatally 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats, and (d) neonatally 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats. PCA was administered when the zero-time sample collection was taken for HPLC/ED analysis. Each group is the mean of 4 or 5 samples. + p<0.05, ++ p<0.003 vs. Saline group; * p<0.05, ** p<0.003 vs. 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT-lesioned group; δ p<0.05, δδ p<0.003 vs. 5,7-DHT-lesioned group (PDF 187 kb).
12640_2019_145_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (34 kb)
ESM 3 Effect of PCA on 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) concentration of neostriatal microdialysates of (a) Saline control rats, (b) neonatally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, (c) neonatally 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats, and (d) neonatally 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats. Remainder of legend as in Supplementary FIG. 2 (PDF 187 kb).
12640_2019_145_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (45 kb)
ESM 4 Summated effects of PCA on 2,3-DHBA concentration of neostriatal microdialysates of (a) Saline control rats, (b) neonatally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, (c) neonatally 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats, and (d) neonatally 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats. Remainder of legend as in Supplementary FIG. 2 (PDF 187 kb).
12640_2019_145_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (35 kb)
ESM 5 Effect of PCA on 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) concentration of neostriatal microdialysates of (a) Saline control rats, (b) neonatally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, (c) neonatally 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats, and (d) neonatally 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats. Remainder of legend as in Supplementary FIG. 2. * p<0.05 vs. 6-OHDA group; δ p<0.05 vs. 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT group; + p<0.05 vs. Saline group (PDF 187 kb).
12640_2019_145_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (41 kb)
ESM 6 Summated effects of PCA on 2,5-DHBA concentration of neostriatal microdialysates of (a) Saline control rats, (b) neonatally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, (c) neonatally 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats, and (d) neonatally 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT-lesioned rats. Remainder of legend as in Supplementary FIG. 2. * p<0.05 vs. 6-OHDA + 5,7-DHT group; δ p<0.05 vs. 6-OHDA group; + p<0.05 vs. Saline group (PDF 187 kb).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.North Alabama ENT AssociatesHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Quillen College of Medicine,East Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen College of MedicineEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA

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