Methamphetamine-Induced Cognitive Deficits and Psychiatric Symptoms Are Associated with Serum Markers of Liver Damage
Cognitive deficits and psychiatric disorders have been regarded as the most common clinical symptoms of methamphetamine (MA) users. Accumulating evidence has shown that liver disease may be involved in cognitive deficits and psychiatric disorders. This study examines whether cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms are associated with serum levels of liver biomarkers in MA users. Cognition was assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Liver function was assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), triglyceride, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations in 106 MA addicts and 76 controls. Compared to control subjects, MA users had greater severity of psychotic symptoms on the dimension of somatization, depression, anxiety, psychoticism, addiction, and global severity index in SCL-90, and lower scores of cognition, including the total RBANS score and all five subscales. The globulin levels were increased, while the albumin, albumin/globulin, and ApoB levels were decreased. ApoB levels were positively correlated with immediate memory, attention, and total RBANS score. Furthermore, stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that ApoB levels were associated with immediate memory, attention, and total RBANS score. The findings of this study suggest that MA addicts might experience cognitive deficits, psychiatric disorders, and liver damage. Serum ApoB levels may be involved in cognitive deficits; thus, improving liver function may help to treat cognitive deficits and psychiatric disorders in MA addicts.
KeywordsMethamphetamine Liver disease Cognitive deficit Psychiatric disorder Apolipoprotein B
T.Z., C.Z., and D.J. conceived and designed the experiments. C.G., Y.Z., H.X., Z.C., H.C., W.S., H.C., and Y.L. carried out experiments. X.C., X.L., M.M., M.X. analyzed experimental data. J.H., Y.X., and Y.L. contributed reagents, materials, and analysis tools. H.S. and Y.W. wrote the first draft of the manuscript. D.J. provided critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content.
Project supported by the provincial Natural Science Foundation of Anhui (1908085MH278), Program of Bengbu Medical College Science and Technology Development (BYKF17113), Program of Bengbu Medical College Science and Technology (BYKY17186), Compulsory Isolated Drug Rehabilitation Center–funded projects, and Innovative Training Program for Chinese College Students (201810367006).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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