Rhynchophylline Attenuates Tourette Syndrome via BDNF/NF-κB Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro
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Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by one of the chronic neuropsychiatric disorders in multiple children, and the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) has not been previously elucidated.
The aim of this study was designed to investigate the effects of rhynchophylline (RH) on Tourette syndrome (TS) in rats.
TS model was established in rats and BV2 cells by the selective 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI). Behavior evaluations including stereotypy recording and autonomic activity test were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, striatum, and cell supernatant were detected. The expression levels of BDNF/NF-κB pathway in striatum and BV2 cells were measured by Western blot. Dopamine (DA) and dopamine receptor D 2 (D2) in striatum were also measured.
Data indicated that RH significantly decreased IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum, striatum, and cell supernatant of TS model, with altered expression of P-NF-κBp65, P-IκBα, and BDNF in TS rats, and DOI-induced BV2 cells, as evidenced by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis. RH also significantly reduced the levels of DA and D2 in striatum.
Our results shown that the regulation of BDNF/NF-κB pathway might be involved in the effects of RH on TS model.
KeywordsRhynchophylline Tourette syndrome BDNF/NF-κB
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81774364, 81603661) and supported by the Nanjing Medical Science and technique Development Foundation (QRX17192).
Long Hongyan and Ruan Jie designed the experiments and wrote articles, Zhang Mengjiao and Wang Chunyan performed the experiments, and Huang Yaruo analyzed and processed data.
Compliance with Ethical Guidelines
All of the experiments were performed in full compliance with the guidelines of the Principles of Laboratory Animal Care and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals approved by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1996). Animal care and experimental protocols were approved by the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine Committee.
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