Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 908–917 | Cite as

Effects of Preventive Treadmill Exercise on the Recovery of Metabolic and Mitochondrial Factors in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

  • Zeinab Rezaee
  • Sayed Mohammad MarandiEmail author
  • Hojjatallah AlaeiEmail author
  • Fahimeh Esfarjani
  • Sadegh Feyzollahzadeh
Original Article


Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease, while exercise can induce essential pathways of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we tested whether long-term preventive treadmill training (16 weeks, 21 m/min, and 0° inclinations for 50 min/d, 5 d/week) effects the mitochondrial and neurodegeneration markers, in the striatum of rats in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson’s disease. Following 16 weeks of exercise or no exercise period (n = 16 rats per group), the animals were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8 per group): (1) no exercise and saline (SED), (2) exercise and saline (EX), (3) no exercise and 6-OHDA (SED + 6-OHDA), and (4) exercise and 6-OHDA (EX + 6-OHDA). For the model, 8 μg of 6-OHDA (2 μg/μL prepared in a solution of 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.9% saline) was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle. Exposure to 6-OHDA resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of mitochondrial factors AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, and tyrosine hydroxylase, and increased expression of silent information regulator T1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and p53 in the SED + 6-OHDA group relative to SED group. By contrast, gene and protein expressions upon exercise were higher and p53 protein level was lower in the EX + 6-OHDA group compared with SED + 6-OHDA. Further, exercise reduced the extent of weight loss associated with the 6-OHDA injection. In conclusion, exercise might be used to reduce mitochondrial disorders in Parkinson’s disease.


Parkinson’s disease Treadmill exercise Neurodegeneration Prevention Body weight 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Education and Sport ScienceUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Department of Physiology, Faculty of MedicineIsfahan University of Medical Sciences, University of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  5. 5.Department of Laboratory Medical Sciences, School of Allied Medical SciencesUrmia University of Medical SciencesUrmiaIran

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