Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 505–515 | Cite as

Low Molecular Weight Sulfated Chitosan: Neuroprotective Effect on Rotenone-Induced In Vitro Parkinson’s Disease

  • Venkatesan Manigandan
  • Jagatheesan Nataraj
  • Ramachandran Karthik
  • Thamilarasan Manivasagam
  • Ramachandran SaravananEmail author
  • Arokyasamy Justin Thenmozhi
  • Musthafa Mohamed Essa
  • Gilles J. Guillemin
Original Article


The present investigation was an attempt to study the effect of low molecular weight sulfated chitosan (LMWSC) on in vitro rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) by evaluating cell viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with 100 nm rotenone resulted in neuronal cell death, redox imbalanced mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA fragmentation, condensation, and apoptotic cellular morphology. Rotenone exposure enhanced the expression of preapoptotic (cytochrome C (cyto c), caspase-3, -8, -9, and Bax) and down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) markers. Reduction of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels ensued due to pretreatment of LMWSC along with consequent normalization of antioxidant enzymes, mitigation of rotenone induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Our current findings suggested that LMWSC exhibit the pronounced neuroprotective effects, which could be due to its antioxidant, mitochondrial protection, and anti-apoptotic properties. We thus conclude that LMWSC could be developed as a novel therapeutic molecule for the benefit of reducing the consequences of PD. However, further extensive preclinical and clinical studies are warranted.


Sulfated chitosan Rotenone Mitochondrial dysfunction Oxidative stress Apoptosis Neuronal damage 


Funding Information

The Senior Research Fellowship was funded and supported by the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12640_2018_9978_MOESM1_ESM.doc (54 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 54 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkatesan Manigandan
    • 1
  • Jagatheesan Nataraj
    • 2
  • Ramachandran Karthik
    • 1
  • Thamilarasan Manivasagam
    • 2
  • Ramachandran Saravanan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arokyasamy Justin Thenmozhi
    • 2
  • Musthafa Mohamed Essa
    • 3
    • 4
  • Gilles J. Guillemin
    • 5
  1. 1.Native Medicine and Marine Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Allied Health SciencesChettinad Academy of Research and EducationChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, CAMSSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  4. 4.Ageing and Dementia Research GroupSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  5. 5.Neuropharmacology Group, MND and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, Australian School of Advanced MedicineMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

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