Advertisement

Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 711–717 | Cite as

The current prevalence and diversity of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered animals in Egypt

  • Khaled Mohamed El-DakhlyEmail author
  • Waleed M. Arafa
  • El-Shaymaa N. El-Nahass
  • Khaled A. M. Shokier
  • Asmaa F. Noaman
Original Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Cystic echinococcosis is a potential zoonotic helminthic disease affect a broad spectrum of mammals including humans worldwide. The economic impact of the disease interestingly requires updated gathering information on the prevalence in slaughtered animals. Accordingly, in the current study, 573 camels, 4300 sheep, and 1235 pigs were surveyed in four Egyptian municipal abattoirs. Among those, 62 (10.82%) camels, 33 (0.77%) sheep and 3 (0.24%) pigs had cystic echinococcosis in lungs, livers and spleen. The diversity of cysts revealed that positive-cystic echinococcosis animals from all species were detected in El-Basatin abattoir. In El-Monieb abattoir, sheep only were infected. In El-Waraa and Beni-Suef abattoirs, cysts were seen in camels only. Infected animals included both sexes. In camels, lungs were the most affected organs, while in sheep, livers were the most abundant. In pigs, hydatid cysts were detected only in lungs. Moreover, camel cysts were mostly large-sized (diameter > 10 cm) with smaller cysts are also recorded. In sheep, small-, moderately- and large-sized cysts were equally present. Cysts in pigs were large-sized. Camels showed a higher percentage of fertile cysts (46.77%; 29/62) followed by sheep (21.21%; 7/33). Calcified/degenerated cysts were less in camels (38.71%; 24/62) than in sheep (75.76%). Non-viable cysts were the less frequent in both species (14.52% in camels and 3.03% in sheep). All cysts recovered from pigs were fertile. In Egypt, governmental agencies and veterinary authorities are asked to potentially eradicate stray dogs (the main definitive host) and towards the proper hygienic disposal of infected offal in abattoirs to minimize the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis.

Keywords

Cystic echinococcosis Camels Sheep Pigs Egypt 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

References

  1. Abbas IEA, Al-Kappany YM, Al-Araby MA (2016) Prevalence and molecular characterization of hydatid cyst isolates from cattle in Egypt. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 11(12):794–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel Aaty H, Abdel-Hameed D, Alam-Eldin Y, El-Shennawy S, Aminou H, Makled SS, Darweesh SK (2012) Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in animal and human isolates from Egypt. Acta Trop 121:125–128.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.10.014PMID: 22062047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdulhameed MF, Habib I, Al-Azizz SA, Robertson I (2018) Cystic echinococcosis in marketed offal of sheep in Basrah, Iraq: abattoir-based survey and a probabilistic model estimation of the direct economic losses due to hydatid cyst. Parasite Epidemiol Control 3:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amer S, Helal IB, Kamau E, Feng Y, Xiao L (2015) Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0118509.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118509 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Azlaf R, Dakkak A (2006) Epidemiological study of the cystic echinococcosis in Morocco. Vet Parasitol 137:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Budke CM, Deplaxes P, Torgerson PR (2006) Global socio-economic impact of CE. Emerg Infect Dis 12(2):296–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christodoulopoulos G, Theodoropoulos G, Petrakos G (2008) Epidemiological survey of cestode-larva disease in Greek sheep flocks. Vet Parasitol 153(3–4):368–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Craig PS (1997) Immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus and a comparison of techniques for diagnosis of canine echinococcosis. In: Andersen FL, Ouhelli H, Kachani M (eds) Compendium on cystic echinococcosis in Africa and in Middle Eastern countries with special reference to Morocco. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, pp 85–118Google Scholar
  9. Craig PS, Rogan MT, Campos-Ponce M (2003) Echinococcosis: disease detection and transmission. Parasitology 127:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Craig PS, McManus DP, Lightowlers MW, Chabalgoity JA, Garcia HH, Gavidia CM, Gilman RH, Gonzalez AE, Lorca M, Naquira C, Nieto A, Schantz PM (2007) Prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis. Lancet Infect Dis 7:385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. da Silva AM (2010) Human echinococcosis: a neglected disease. Gastroenterol Res Pract, 1409872 .  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/583297 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Daryani A, Aiaei R, Arab R, Sharif M (2006) Prevalence of hydatid cyst in slaughtered animals in Northwest Iran. J Anim Vet Adv 5:330–334Google Scholar
  13. Daryani A, Alaei R, Arab R, Sharif M, Dehghan MH, Ziaei H (2007) The prevalence, intensity and viability of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in the Ardabil province of Northwest Iran. J Helminthol 81:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dyab KA, Hassanein R, Hussein AA, Metwally SE, Gaad HM (2005) Hydatidosis among man and animals in Assiut and Aswan Governorates. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 35:157–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Elmahdi IE, Ali QM, Magzoub MM, Ibrahim AM, Saad MB, Romig T (2004) Cystic echinococcosis of livestock and humans in central Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ersahin Y, Mutuler S, Guzelbag E (1993) Intracranial hydatid cysts in children. Neurosurgery 33(2):219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Faraji R, Javadi GR, Barshahi PM, Ahmadian F, Sarebanhassanabadi M, Firoozabadi AD, Moloudi AR (2015) Prevalence of hydatid cyst in slaughtered livestock in Kermanshah (West Iran). Adv Microbiol 5:252–257.  https://doi.org/10.4236/aim.2015.54023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fathi S, Dehaghi MM, Radfar MH (2011) Fertility and viability rates of hydatid cysts in camels slaughtered in Kerman region, the southeast of Iran. Sci Parasitol 12(2):77–83Google Scholar
  19. Fikire Z, Tolosa T, Nigussie Z, Macias C, Kebede N (2012) Prevalence and characterization of hydatidosis in animals slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir, Ethiopia. J Parasitol Vector Biol 4(1):1–6.  https://doi.org/10.5897/JPVB11.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fromsa A, Jobre Y (2011) Infection prevalence of hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus, Batsch, 1786) in domestic animals in Ethiopia: a synthesis report of previous surveys. Ethiop Vet J 15:11–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garg M, Gupta RK, Prasad KN, Sikora SS, Pal L, Chawla S, Kumar R, Husain M, Saxena S, Husain N, Roy R (2002) Fertility assessment of hydatid cyst by Proton MR spectroscopy. J Surg Res 106:196–201.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jsre.2002.6397 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Getachew D, Almaw G, Terefe G (2012) Occurrence and fertility rates of hydatid cysts in sheep and goats slaughtered at Modjo Luna Export Slaughter House, Ethiopia. Ethiop Vet J 16(1):83–91.  https://doi.org/10.4314/evj.v16i1.7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haridy FM, Ibrahim BB, Morsy TA (1998) Studies on hydatidosis in slaughtered camels in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 28:673–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Haridy FM, Ibrahim BM, Elshazly AM, Awad SE, Sultan DM, El-Sherbini G, Morsy TA (2006) Hydatidosis granulosus in Egyptian slaughtered animals in the years 2000–2005. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36:1087–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ibrahem MM, Craig PS (1998) Prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Libya. J Helminthol 72:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ibrahim M (2010) Study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered animals in Al Baha region, Saudi Arabia: interaction between some biotic and abiotic factors. Acta Trop 113:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kebede N, Mitiku A, Tilahun G (2009) Hydatidosis of slaughtered animals in Bahir Dar abattoir, Northwestern Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 41:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kebede N, Gebre-Egziabher Z, Tilahun G, Wossene A (2011) Prevalence and financial effects of hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered in Birre-Sheleko and Dangila abattoirs, Northwestern Ethiopia. Zoonoses Public Health 58:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kouidri M, Khoudja FB, Boulkaboul A, Selles M (2012) Prevalence, fertility and viability of cystic echinococcosis in sheep and cattle of Algeria. Bulg J Vet Med 15(3):191–197Google Scholar
  30. Melaku A, Lukas B, Bogale B (2012) Cyst viability, organ distribution and financial losses due to hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Dessie municipal abattoir, North-eastern Ethiopia. Vet World 5(4):213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Gathura PB, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E (2002) A study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of northern Turkana, Kenya. Vet Parasitol 104:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Omar M, Sultan K, Haridy M, Omran A (2013) Prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered ruminants in different abattoirs, Upper Egypt. Am J Anim Vet Sci 8(3):117–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Omer RA, Dinkel A, Romig T, Mackenstedt U, Elnahas AA, Aradaib IE, Ahmed ME, Elmalik KH, Adam A (2010) A molecular survey of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan. Vet Parasitol 169:340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oostburg BFJ, Vrede MA, Bergen AE (2000) The occurrence of polycystic echinococcosis in Suriname. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 94:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pandey VS, Ouhelli H, Ouchton M (1986) Hydatidosis in sheep, goats and dromedaries in Morocco. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 80:525–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pangui LJ, Ould AE (1991) Incidence of camel hydatidosis in Mauritania. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 39:25–26Google Scholar
  37. Parkoohi PI, Jahani M, Hosseinzadeh F, Taghian S, Rostami F, Mousavi A, Rezai M (2018) Epidemiology and clinical features of hydatid cyst in Northern Iran from 2005 to 2015. Iran J Parasitol 13(2):310–316Google Scholar
  38. Qingling M, Guanglei W, Jun Q, Xinquan Z, Tianli L, Xuemei S, Jinsheng Z, Huisheng W, Kuojun C, Chuangfu C (2014) Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China. Korean J Parasitol 52(3):331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rahman MS, Sokar SM, Dahab S (1992) Comparative studies on hydatidosis in farm animals in Egypt. Deutsch Tierärztl Wochenschr 99:438–440Google Scholar
  40. Sabri JH, Hassan MA, Ramadan MY, Khalifa NO (2005) Hydatidosis in sheep, goat and human contacts. Benha Vet Med J 16:2–2Google Scholar
  41. Scala A, Garippa G, Varcasia A, Tranquillo VM, Genchi C (2006) Cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep in Sardinia (Italy). Vet Parasitol 135(1):33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Singh BB, Dhand NK, Ghatak S, Gill JPS (2014) Economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India: needfor urgent action to control the disease. Prev Vet Med 113:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thompson RC (2008) The taxonomy, phylogeny and transmission of Echinococcus. Exp Parasitol 119:439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thompson RC, McManus DP (2002) Towards a taxonomic revision of the genus Echinococcus. Trends Parasitol 18:452–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Torgerson PR, Budke C (2003) Echinococcosis: an international public health challenge. Res Vet Sci 74:191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly
    • 1
    Email author
  • Waleed M. Arafa
    • 1
  • El-Shaymaa N. El-Nahass
    • 2
  • Khaled A. M. Shokier
    • 3
  • Asmaa F. Noaman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineBeni-Suef UniversityBeni SuefEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineBeni-Suef UniversityBeni SuefEgypt
  3. 3.Animal Health Research Institute, Beni-Suef BranchBeni SuefEgypt

Personalised recommendations