Contamination of food-borne parasites from green-leafy vegetables sold in public markets of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
- 17 Downloads
Vegetables contribute a significant portion of the typical Filipino diet. Hence, it is a concern that based on previous studies, vegetables could potentially act as vectors for parasitic transmission. This study aimed to further investigate these occurrences by assessing the food-borne parasitic contamination of vegetables sold in the public markets of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija. A total of 288 vegetable samples (cabbage, lettuce and Chinese cabbage) were collected from March to August 2018 in the wet market and supermarkets of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija. Results showed that 116 out of 288 (40.28%) vegetable samples were positive of food-borne parasites such as Ascaris sp., Hymenolepis diminuta, Isospora sp., Hookworm/Strongylid sp./free-living nematode larvae, Strongylid sp. egg, Taenia sp., and Trichuris sp. Isospora sp. has the highest contamination rate (16.67%) and mean density (13 eggs/g) from the sampled vegetables. Possible sources of these identified parasites are contaminated soil and water harbored by the sampled vegetables during cultivation, transport and handling/preparation by vendors. Further studies are needed to establish a more reliable information that could lead to public health improvement and food safety awareness for the community.
KeywordsParasitic contamination Vegetables Unwashed versus treated Food-borne parasites
We would like to thank the Department of Biological Sciences, Central Luzon State University for the equipment and facilities provided for this study.
Conceived and designed the experiments: KCCV, ZGB, DSCC; Performed the experiment, Data analysis: KCCV; All authors participated in writing the final paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ebrahimzadeh A, Jamshidi A, Mohammadi S (2013) The parasitic contamination of raw vegetables consumed in Zahedan. Iran. Health Scope 1(4):202–206Google Scholar
- Hajjami K, Ennaji MM, Amdiouni H, Fouad S, Cohen N (2013) Parasitic contamination fresh vegetable consumed in Casablanca City (Morocco) and risk from consumer. Int J Sci Technol 2(7):543–549Google Scholar
- Hall EJ (2013) Chapter 57: small intestine. In: Washabau RJ, Day MJ (eds) Canine and feline gastroeneterology. Elsevier-Saunders, North York, pp 651–728Google Scholar
- Maipanich W, Chaisiri K, Yoonuan T, Sato M, Sato MO, Pongvongsa T et al (2011) Zoonotic helminth contamination of the environment in rural villages of Southern Lao PDR. J Trop Med Parasitol 34(2):54–61Google Scholar
- Ordoñez K, Paller VG, Goh XT, Lim Y (2018) Parasite contamination of vegetables from selected organic and conventional farms in Laguna and Benguet Province, Philippines. Trop Agric Sci 41(4):1741–1746Google Scholar
- Parasites (2018) https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/az/index.html. Accessed 1 May 2019
- Suh KN, Kozarsky P, Keystone JS (2015) Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cytoisospora (Isospora) belli, Sarcocystis species, Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ (eds) Mandell Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, 8th edn. Elsevier-Saunders, North York, pp 3184–3191Google Scholar