Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic persons in Hamadan, west of Iran
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Giardia is a very abundant organism bringing about diarrhoea in human beings. The focus of this analysis was the detection of Giardia lamblia assemblages in human stool specimens in Hamadan, west of Iran, as well as the association between obtained assemblages and clinical symptoms. Faecal samples of 4066 individuals admitted to the medical and health care facilities in Hamadan were inspected microscopically for the existence of Giardia cysts/trophozoites, and the clinical symptoms of the patients were recorded. The DNA of positive samples was isolated from and the nucleotide sequences of both glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) (n = 15) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) (n = 8) genes were analyzed. In direct microscopy, a total of sixty-four samples (1.6%), were considered as positive for G. lamblia cysts or trophozoites. The sequence analysis showed that 18 out of 23 sequenced isolates (78.2%) were assemblage A and 5 (21.7%) were assemblage B. Clinical symptoms were observed in 44.4% and 40% of patients with assemblages A and B, respectively. Overall, the predominant assemblage A detected in the tested samples along with bioinformatics analysis suggest a potential zoonotic transmission in the region of the study. Although advanced analyses are necessary to understand the foundation and path of the infection, it seems that more sanitary regulations regarding contact with livestock and pet animals are essential.
KeywordsAssemblage A and B Clinical symptoms Giardia lamblia Iran
We are thanking to all staffs and officers of Health Centers of Hamadan city.
M. Kashinahanji and A.H. Maghsood planned the research, carried it out, analyzed data and, assessed clinical records. They also cooperated in the manuscript writing. M. Fallah, M. Saidijam and M. Matini statistical analysis, assisted for sample collection and study design. F. Bahrami and A. Haghighi executed the laboratory assays and cooperated in the manuscript writing and revision.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The present research was accomplished in agreement with the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki and has been permitted by Hamadan University of Medical Sciences ethics committee (Grant No. 9208072464) with respect to the human rights and a written informed consensus was attained from every participant before gathering data.
This study was funded by Vice-chancellor for Research and Technology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Grant No. 9208072464).
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