Advertisement

Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from livestock based on mitochondrial cox1 gene, in the Markazi province, Iran

  • Behnam Abedi
  • Amir Hossein Maghsood
  • Behzad Khansarinejad
  • Mohammad Fallah
  • Mohammad Matini
  • Shirzad Gholami
  • Abdol Sattar Pagheh
  • Reza GhasemikhahEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Hydatidosisis a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus with different genotypes, and major complications in vital organs such as liver, lungs and, brain. Also, this parasite can infect animals and cause economic damages. Recently, some investigations indicated that the genetic variation of the parasite affects the antigenic, immunogenic and pathogenic features. Therefore, present study conducted to genotyping of the E. granulosus larva based on mitochondrial cox1 gene in livestock in the endemic areas of Markazi province, Iran. In this study, 49 hydatid cysts samples collected from 36 sheep, 11 goats and 2 cattle from different slaughterhouses of Markazi province in central part of Iran, 2017. The mitochondrial cox1 gene was amplified and genotyping were accomplished using sequence analysis. The sequencing analysis indicated that the main genotype G1 (61%) and G3 (37%) were identified. Also, one of the samples shows similarity with the G2 (2%) genotype. The results showed the statistically significant differences between the genotypes in different livestock (P < 0.05). This study indicated that the main genotypes of E. granulosus in Markazi province are G1 and G3 which are related to dog/sheep strain. Therefore, parasite control in dogs and sheep can reduce the risk of transmission of infection to humans.

Keywords

Echinococcus granulosus cox1 Livestock Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to Dr. Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar for her helpful consultation and comments on the manuscript.

Author’s contributions

This study was conducted by BA, AHM, BK, MF, MM, SG, ASP, and RG. Also, RG designed the study. Laboratory evaluation was performed by BA, AHM and BK. Manuscript preparation was conducted by MF, MM, SG, ASP and RG. BA and AHM participated in the data analysis. BA and RG performed the statistical analysis. All authors includes BA, AHM, BK, MF, MM, SG, ASP and RG read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

Vice-chancellor for Research and Technology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran (Grant No. 9511267049).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There was not any conflict of interests by all authors.

Ethical standard

All experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

References

  1. Bowles J, Blair D, McManus DP (1992) Genetic variants within the genus Echinococcus identified by mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Mol Biochem Parasitol 54(2):165–173Google Scholar
  2. Dousti M, Abdi J, Bakhtiyari S, Mohebali M, Mirhendi S, Rokni M (2013) Genotyping of hydatid cyst isolated from human and domestic animals in Ilam Province, Western Iran using PCR-RFLP. Iran J Parasitol 8(1):47–52Google Scholar
  3. Eckert J, Gemmell M, Meslin FX, Pawlowski ZS, World Health Organization (2001) WHO/OIE manual on echinococcosis in humans and animals: a public health problem of global concern. In: Eckert J et al (eds) World Organisation for Animal Health, Paris. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42427
  4. Fadakar B, Tabatabaei N, Borji H, Naghibi A (2015) Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from goats and sheep indicating G7 genotype in goats in the Northeast of Iran. Vet Parasitol 214(1–2):204–207.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.09.029 Google Scholar
  5. Gezehegn D, Abay M, Tetemke D, Zelalem H, Teklay H, Baraki Z, Medhin G (2017) Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 17(1):819.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4831-5 Google Scholar
  6. Ghasemikhah R, Shahdoust M, Sarmadian H, Rezaei M, Ghorbanzadeh B, Gorji A, Zare-Bidaki M (2015) Echinococcosis in livestock slaughtered in arak industrial abattoir in Central Iran during 2006 to 2012. West Indian Med J.  https://doi.org/10.7727/wimj.2015.153 Google Scholar
  7. Gholami S, Irshadullah M, Mobedi I (2011) Rostellar hook morphology of larval Echinococcus granulosus isolates from the Indian buffalo and Iranian sheep, cattle and camel. J Helminthol 85(3):239–245.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X10000520 Google Scholar
  8. Gholami S, Sosari M, Fakhar M, Sharif M, Daryani A, Hashemi M, Vahadi M (2012) Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from hydatid cysts isolated from human and animals in Golestan Province, North of Iran. Iran J Parasitol 7(4):8–16Google Scholar
  9. Grosso G, Gruttadauria S, Biondi A, Marventano S, Mistretta A (2012) Worldwide epidemiology of liver hydatidosis including the Mediterranean area. World J Gastroenterol 18(13):1425–1437.  https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i13.1425 Google Scholar
  10. Hajialilo E, Harandi MF, Sharbatkhori M, Mirhendi H, Rostami S (2012) Genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in camels, cattle and sheep from the south-east of Iran indicates the presence of the G3 genotype. J Helminthol 86(3):263–270.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022149x11000320 Google Scholar
  11. Haniloo A, Farhadi M, Fazaeli A, Nourian N (2013) Genotype characterization of hydatid cysts isolated from Zanjan using PCR-RFLP technique. ZUMS J 21(84):57–65Google Scholar
  12. Harandi MF, Hobbs R, Adams P, Mobedi I, Morgan-Ryan U, Thompson R (2002) Molecular and morphological characterization of Echinococcus granulosus of human and animal origin in Iran. Parasitology 125(4):367–373Google Scholar
  13. Hizem A, M’rad S, Oudni-M’rad M, Mestiri S, Hammedi F, Mezhoud H, Zakhama A, Mokni M, Babba H (2016) Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preparations from human isolates in unusual tissue sites. J Helminthol 90(4):417–421.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000516 Google Scholar
  14. Khademvatan S, Yousefi E, Rafiei A, Rahdar M, Saki J (2013) Molecular characterization of livestock and human isolates of Echinococcus granulosus from south-west Iran. J helminthol 87(2):240–244.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000296 Google Scholar
  15. Khademvatan S, Majidiani H, Foroutan M, Tappeh KH, Aryamand S, Khalkhali H (2018) Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran: a systematic review. J Helminthol 93(2):131–138.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X18000275 Google Scholar
  16. Kinkar L, Laurimäe T, Sharbatkhori M, Mirhendi H, Kia EB, Ponce-Gordo F, Andresiuk V, Simsek S, Lavikainen A, Irshadullah M, Umhang G, Oudni-M’rad M, Acosta-Jamett G, Rehbein S, Saarma U (2017) New mitogenome and nuclear evidence on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the highly zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. Infect Genet Evol 52:52–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2017.04.023 Google Scholar
  17. Kinkar L, Laurimäe T, Acosta-Jamett G, Andresiuk V, Balkaya I, Casulli A, Gasser RB, van der Giessen J, González LM, Haag KL, Zait H, Irshadullah M, Jabbar A, Jenkins DJ, Kia EB, Manfredi MT, Mirhendi H, M’rad S, Rostami-Nejad M, Oudni-M’rad M, Pierangeli NB, Ponce-Gordo F, Rehbein S, Sharbatkhori M, Simsek S, Soriano SV, Sprong H, Šnábel V, Umhang G, Varcasia A, Saarma U (2018) Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1. Int J Parasitol 48(9–10):729–742.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.03.006 Google Scholar
  18. Nejad MR, Mojarad EN, Norouzina M, Harandi MF (2010) Echinococcosis: based on molecular studies in Iran. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 3(4):169–176.  https://doi.org/10.22037/ghfbb.v3i4.116 Google Scholar
  19. Nikmanesh B, Mirhendi H, Ghalavand Z, Alebouyeh M, Sharbatkhori M, Kia E, Mohebali M, Rokni MB (2014) Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from human clinical samples based on sequencing of mitochondrial genes in Iran, Tehran. Iran J Parasitol 9(1):20–27Google Scholar
  20. Parsa F, Harandi MF, Rostami S, Sharbatkhori M (2012) Genotyping Echinococcus granulosus from dogs from Western Iran. Exp Parasitol 132(2):308–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2012.07.010 Google Scholar
  21. Pezeshki A, Akhlaghi L, Sharbatkhori M, Razmjou E, Oormazdi H, Mohebali M, Meamar AR (2013) Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from domestic animals and humans from Ardabil Province, northwest Iran. J Helminthol 87(4):387–391.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022149x1200051x Google Scholar
  22. Rokni M (2009) Echinococcosis/hydatidosis in Iran. Iran J Parasitol 4(2):1–16Google Scholar
  23. Romig T, Ebi D, Wassermann M (2015) Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Vet Parasitol 213(3–4):76–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.07.035 Google Scholar
  24. Rostami S, Shariat Torbaghan S, Dabiri S, Babaei Z, Ali Mohammadi M, Sharbatkhori M, Fasihi Harandi M (2015) Genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from a large number of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of human isolates in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92(3):588–594.  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0585 Google Scholar
  25. Sadjjadi SM, Mikaeili F, Karamian M, Maraghi S, Sadjjadi FS, Shariat-Torbaghan S, Kia EB (2013) Evidence that the Echinococcus granulosus G6 genotype has an affinity for the brain in humans. Int J Parasitol 43(11):875–877.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.06.008 Google Scholar
  26. Sadri A, Moshfe A, Doosti A, Ansari H, Abidi H, Ghorbani Dalini S (2012) Characterization of isolated hydatid cyst from slaughtered livestock in Yasuj industrial slaughterhouse by PCR-RFLP. Armaghane danesh 17(3):243–252Google Scholar
  27. Shahnazi M, Hejazi H, Salehi M, Andalib AR (2011) Molecular characterization of human and animal Echinococcus granulosus isolates in Isfahan, Iran. Acta Trop 117(1):47–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.09.002 Google Scholar
  28. Shamsi M, Dalimi A, Khosravi A, Ghafarifar F (2015) Determination of genotype isolates of human and sheep hydatid cyst in Ilam. Sci J Ilam Univ Med Sci 23(2):111–119Google Scholar
  29. Sharafi SM, Rostami-Nejad M, Moazeni M, Yousefi M, Saneie B, Hosseini-Safa A, Yousofi-Darani H (2014) Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 7(2):82–88Google Scholar
  30. Sharbatkhori M, Harandi MF, Mirhendi H, Hajialilo E, Kia EB (2011) Sequence analysis of cox1 and nad1 genes in Echinococcus granulosus G3 genotype in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from central Iran. Parasitol res 108(3):521–527.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2092-7 Google Scholar
  31. Sharbatkhori M, Tanzifi A, Rostami S, Rostami M, Fasihi Harandi M (2016) Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes in domestic livestock and humans in Golestan province, Iran. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 58:38.  https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-9946201658038 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Parasitology and MycologyHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran
  2. 2.Department of Medical MicrobiologyArak University of Medical SciencesArākIran
  3. 3.Department of Parasitology, Toxoplasmosis Research CenterMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  4. 4.Department of Medical Parasitology and MycologyArak University of Medical SciencesArākIran

Personalised recommendations