Cross-sectional study of Eimeria species of poultry in Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria
- 4 Downloads
Coccidiosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global poultry industry as the protozoan is found anywhere poultry are reared. Before now, there have been no documents on the intensity and diversity of Eimeria species of poultry in Kwara State. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and intensity of Eimeria species and its species diversity among poultry in Kwara Central, North-Central Nigeria. Five hundred and two fecal samples (from four hundred and seventy two chickens and thirty turkeys) were collected from chickens and turkeys from 15 farms from December 2017 to May 2018. The samples were subjected to floatation technique. Positive samples were further subjected to the McMaster counting technique for determining the intensity of infection. Sporulation of unsporulated oocysts was carried out using 2.5% potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), for the purpose of identifying the different Eimeria species. Ninety five (18.9%) of the sampled population, 10 (66.7%) of the 15 sampled farms were positive for Eimeria species. The total mean oocyst per gram was 6325.0. Eight Eimeria species were detected in the study: 7 in chickens and 1 in turkeys. Eimeria tenella was the most predominant among chickens, E. meleagrimitis was the only species detected in turkeys. Age, sex, bird type, physiological status, farm age, farm size (acres), management system, frequency of anthelmintic use, frequency of anticoccidial use, distance to dumping site (meters), level of biosecurity and frequency of cleaning the pen were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the occurrence of Eimeria infection. It is envisaged that the information obtained in this study will contribute to a clearer understanding of the epidemiology of poultry coccidiosis, for better management protocol which will improve the productivity of the sector in Kwara State and Nigeria.
KeywordsEimeria species Kwara State Prevalence Risk factors
The authors would like to express their profound gratitude to the farm owners for giving us attention and access to their birds.
SDO conceived and designed the study, was involved in the labouratory work, did the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. PIU did the sampling and partook in laboratory work. IMS, KH, IAG, MR were involved in laboratory work RBB was involved in the sampling. All authors read, revised and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest among them.
- Adamu AY, Ahmed AB, Abubakar MB, Lawal MD (2009) A retrospective study (2004–2008) of poultry diseases diagnosed in veterinary teaching hospital (VTH), Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS) and Sokoto Veterinary Centre (Svc), Sokoto State, Nigeria. Int J Anim Vet Adv 1(1):15–17Google Scholar
- Agishi G, Luga II, Rabo JS (2016) Prevalence of Coccidiosis and Eimeria species in layers and broilers at slaughter houses in Makurdi, Benue State. Int J Eng Sci 5(2):8–11Google Scholar
- Ali H, Naqvi F, Tariq N (2014) Prevalence of coccidiosis and its association with risk factors in Poultry of Quetta, Pakistan. Asian J Appl Sci 2(4):554–558Google Scholar
- Davou MG, Kumbish PR, Barde IJ, Ahmed JS, Olabode HOK, Wungak YS (2015) A retrospective study on chicken coccidiosis in Ilorin. Direct Res J Agric Food Sci 3(5):93–97Google Scholar
- Grema HA, Suleiman A, Rabana JL, Geidam YA (2014) A six-year (2005–2010) retrospective study of avian coccidiosis diagnosed in Gombe Veterinary Clinic, Nigeria. Sokoto J Vet Sci 12(2):8–13Google Scholar
- Lawal JR, Gulani IA, Ali AM, Bello AM, Abadam FA, Mustapha M, Dauda J, Adamu L, Biu AA (2016a) Dry season prevalence of avian Coccidia infection in domesticated chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Jere Council, Borno State, Nigeria. J Anim Sci Vet Med 1:67–73Google Scholar
- Luka SA, Ndams IS (2007) Gastrointestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus-gallus domesticus Linnaeus 1758 in Samaru, Zaria Nigeria. Sci World J 2(1):27–29Google Scholar
- Majaro OM (2001) New house syndrome: investigation into the possible role of housefly (Musca domestica) in the epizootiology of coccidiosis in chickens. Trop Vet 19:237–242Google Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2016) Annual abstract of statistics. Federal Republic of NigeriaGoogle Scholar
- Ngele KK (2017) Prevalence of Eimeria species on exotic chickens reared in Afikpo Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. FUNAI J Sci Technol 3(2):67–81Google Scholar
- Ojimelukwe AE, Agu GO, Abah AE (2018) Molecular identification of poultry Eimeria species at live bird markets in River State, Nigeria. IOSR J Agric Vet Sci 11(2):45–51Google Scholar
- Olanrewaju CA, Agbor RY (2014) Prevalence of coccidiosis among poultry birds slaughtered at Gwagwalada main market, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria. Int J Eng Sci 3:41–45Google Scholar
- Prakashbabu BC, Thenmozhi V, Limon V, Kundu K, Kumar S, Garg R, Clark EL, Srinivasa Rao ASR, Raj DG, Raman M, Banerjee PS, Tomley FM, Guitian J, Blake DP (2017) Eimeria species occurrence varies between geographic regions and poultry production systems and may influence parasite genetic diversity. Vet Parasitol 233:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soulsby EJL (1982) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domestic animals, 7th edn. Bailliere Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Taylor MA, Coop RL, Wall RL (2007) Veterinary parasitology, 3rd edn. Black Well, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Udoh NA, Luka SA, Audu PA (2014) Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic turkey (Meleagris Gallopavo) Linnaeus, (1758) slaughtered in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. J Nat Sci Res 4(17):105–109Google Scholar