Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fingerlings of Indian major carps in District Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India)
- 25 Downloads
A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence rate, site preference and extent of damage caused by myxosporidian parasites in Punjab, India. During the 6 months study, 600 carp fingerlings belonging to 4 genera i.e. Labeo rohita Hamilton, Cirrhinus mrigala Hamilton, Catla catla Thail and Carassius carassius were randomly collected from the polyculture nursery ponds located in different villages District Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab. Organs such as fins, scales, gills, intestine, kidney, and eye-ball were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites. In this study, gills of 321 (53.50%) were found to be infected with as many as 10 species of myxosporean parasites belonging to the genus Myxobolus. Gills were examined for the presence of plasmodia and infected organs were processed for histology. The gill plasmodial index (GPI) was counted for all the 10 species and this revealed a mild to severe infection was recorded. M. knobii, M. majraiensis, M. markiwi, M. naini, M. rocatlae, M. vascularis and M. venkateshi formed intralamellar vascular type of plasmodia (LV1), M. nanokiensis formed (LV3) and M. potularis and M. slendrii formed intrafilamental type of plasmodium (FV2). Out of 231 infected fishes, mixed infection was recorded in 44 fishes (13.70%), which exhibited biparasitism and polyparasitism. No infection was recorded in exotic carp i.e. C. carassius. Physicochemical parameters of water were also recorded for the period of 6 months comprising 4 months of winter and 2 months of spring. The present study indicated that the prevalence of myxozoan parasite was 43% in November (24.0 °C) and increased to 54% with the decrease in temperature (22.65 °C).
KeywordsFingerlings Myxobolus Gills Water parameters GPI Histology Punjab
The authors acknowledge the facilities provided by Instrumentation lab Punjabi University, Patiala. Financial support for this study was provided by UGC-CAS grant Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest to disclose.
Not required as per the guidelines of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), because we are dealing with fish samples and the chemicals we are using are not harmful to the environment.
- Ahmad A, Ali SMK, Samad A (1991) Probable cause of fish ulcer in Bangladesh. Nutr News 14(1):3Google Scholar
- Anderson DP (1974) Fish immunology. In: Sneiszko SF, Axelrod HR (eds) Diseases of fishes. FH Publication, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- Awal MA, Begum AA, Chandra KJ, Ahmed GU, Kurohmaru M (2001) Myxosporidian infection of gills and skin among carp from nursery ponds in Bangladesh: histopathology. Vet Archiv 71(5):265–276Google Scholar
- Basu S, Haldar DP (2002) Observations on three new species of Myxobolus Butschli, 1882 from hybrid carps of West Bengal, India. Indian J Environ Ecoplan 6(3):629–640Google Scholar
- Bauer ON (1984) Parasites of the Lena River. Izv Vsesoyuz Nauchno-Issled Inst Ozer Irechn ryb Khozyaistva 27:157–175Google Scholar
- Boyd CE (1982) Water quality management of pond fish culture. Dev Aquacult Fish Sci 9. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 318Google Scholar
- Butschli O (1882) Myxosporidia. In: Winter CF (ed) Bronn’s Klassens und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, Vol. I Protozoa, 2nd edn. C.F. Winter, Leipzig, pp 590–603Google Scholar
- Chandra KJ (1987) Fish health monitoring and control of disease. In: Training manual of training on integrated farming to the Upazila fisheries officer. DoF Bang, p 155Google Scholar
- Hossain MD, Hossain MK, Rahaman MH, Akter A, Khanom DA (2008) Prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings at Santaher, Bogra. Univ J Zool Rajshahi Univ 27:17–19Google Scholar
- Kalavati C, Nandi NC (2007) Handbook on myxosporidean parasites of Indian fishes. Kolkata, Zoological Survey of India, p 293Google Scholar
- Kaur H, Ahmad I (2016) Morphological description of M. markiwi (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Myxozoa) infecting gills of fingerlings of aquaculture ponds from Punjab, India. Species 17(56):141–149Google Scholar
- Kaur H, Singh R (2008) Observation on one new species of the genus Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) and redescription of Myxobolus magauddi (Bajpai, 1981) Landsberg and Lom, 1991 recorded from freshwater fishes of Kanjali Wetland of Punjab (India) Proc Natl Congr Parasitol, NEHU Shillong, pp 75–79Google Scholar
- Kaur H, Singh R (2010) Two new species of Myxobolus (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) from the Indian major carp Labeo rohita Hamilton, 1822. Protistology 6(4):264–270Google Scholar
- Kaur H, Singh R (2012b) Biodiversity of myxozoan parasites infecting freshwater fishes of three main wetlands of Punjab, India. Protistology 7(2):79–89Google Scholar
- Kaur H, Katoch A, Gupta M (2014) Thelohanellus filli sp. n., a pathogenic myxosporean infecting gills of cultured carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton 1822) in Punjab, India. Species 10:31–38Google Scholar
- Kaur H, Dar SA, Singh R (2015) One new and three already known myxosporean parasites of Indian major carps in Punjab (India). Species 4:17–24Google Scholar
- Lom J, Dyková I (1991) Practical key for determination of myxosporean genera. In: Svodova Z, Vykusova B (eds) Diagnostics, prevention and therapy of fish diseases and intoxications. Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, VodnanyGoogle Scholar
- Lom J, Noble ER (1984) Revised classification of the class Myxosporea Butschli, 1881. Folia Parasitol 31:193–205Google Scholar
- Luna LG (1968) Manual of histological staining method of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 111Google Scholar
- Molnár K (2002b) Redescription and histopathology of Myxobolus cyprinicola Reuss. 1906. An intestinal parasite of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Acta Protozool 41:279–283Google Scholar
- Piper RG, Mc Elwain IB, Orme LE, Mc Caren JP, Fowler LG, Leonard JR (1982) Fish hatchery management. US Fish and Wildlife service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Sitja-Bobadilla A, Alvarez-Pellitero P (1993) Population dynamics of Sphaerospora dicentrarchi Sitja-Bobadilla et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1992 and S. testiculasis Sitja-Bobadilla et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1990 (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infections in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Parasitology 106:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Svobodova Z, Lloyd R, Machova J, Vykusova B (1993) Water quality and fish health. Eifac Tech Pap 54. FAO, Rome, p 59Google Scholar