Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 259–268 | Cite as

Prevalence of cymothoid isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda) and proximate analysis of parasites and their host fishes, Southeastern India

  • Rajendran Rajaram
  • Kulanthasamy Rakesh Kumar
  • Shanmugam Vinothkumar
  • Ephrime B. Metillo
Original Article


Cymothoid isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda) are considered as potential threat to the health of different fish species. In order to evaluate the prevalence and proximate analysis of Cymothoid isopods and its host, an investigation was carried out fish species belonging to families Hemiramphidae and Belonidae in the Palk Bay region, Southeastern India. A total of 1265 individuals of teleost fish belonging to family Hemiramphidae species, Hemiramphus far (462), H. archipelagicus (78), and H. lutkie (277) and another family Belonidae species, Tylosurus crocodilus (448), were examined for cymothoid ectoparasitic infestation. Prevalence in H. far was the highest (39%) for the cymothoid Mothocys plagulophora, while T. crocodilus was most infested (13%) with Mothocys renardi, H. far and H. lutkie were not infested by M. renardi while T. crocodilus was not infested by M. plagulophora. Proximate analysis showed reduced level of protein in parasite infested fish compared with non-infested individuals. However, carbohydrate and lipid concentrations were lower in infested fish than non-infested individuals. Proximate analysis values in the two parasites of Mothocys species were similar, and these values were comparable to those unaffected fish species indicating that parasites were well nourished. The proximate analysis of isopod parasite M. plagulophora showed 21.6 ± 7.7, 1.26 ± 0.05, 5.49 ± 1.06% of protein, carbohydrate and lipid respectively, and in M. renardi, 21.09 ± 6.6, 1.32 ± 0.12, 5.83 ± 0.72% of protein, carbohydrate and lipid respectively. Cadmium levels were similar between affected and non-affected fish individuals and among species. The Pb levels were comparable among all T. crocodilus individuals, but the levels of Cd not showed much variation between affected and unaffected individuals in all four fish species.


Host parasite interaction Proximate analysis Mothocys plagulophora M. renardi 



Authors are thankful to authorities of Bharathidasan University for the facilities provided and also grateful to Dr. S. Ravichandran, Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, India for identification of parasitic isopod species.

Author’s contribution

Conceived and designed the experiments: RR, SV. Performed the experiments: RR, RK and SV. Analyzed the data and wrote the paper: RR and EPM.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding publication of the articles.

Ethical statements

The four species of marine food fishes viz. Hemiramphus far, H. archipelagicus, H. lutkie and Tylosurus crocodilus belonging to families Hemiramphidae and Belonidae are not governed by any law. Therefore, the organisms were not placed for Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC) approval. All the experiments were performed for best practice according to Bharathidasan University IAEC guidelines. Furthermore, we did not conduct any experimentation with human subjects.


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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajendran Rajaram
    • 1
  • Kulanthasamy Rakesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Shanmugam Vinothkumar
    • 1
  • Ephrime B. Metillo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesMindanao State University-Iligan Institute of TechnologyIligan CityPhilippines

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