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Anticryptosporidial effect of pomegranate peels water extract in experimentally infected mice with special reference to some biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity

  • D. AboelsouedEmail author
  • F. A. M. Abo-Aziza
  • M. H. Mahmoud
  • K. N. Abdel Megeed
  • N. M. T. Abu El Ezz
  • F. M. Abu-Salem
Original Article
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a well-known parasitic protozoan called Cryptosporidium. Infection in livestock causes important economic losses among farm animals and its control has a global concern. In this study, internal white and external red layers were separated from pomegranate peels (Punica granatum) then; they were grinded to reach Nano form. Anticryptosporidial effect of their water extracts was investigated in experimentally infected mice. Also, their antioxidant activity, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied. Briefly, hot aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were prepared regarding its good sensory attributes at concentration of 10% W/V. Analysis of total phenolics, individual phenolics by HPLC-DAD and antioxidant activities have been done. Forty-five mice were divided into five groups each one containing nine mice. The first group was healthy mice and the 2nd one was infected orally with 104Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) oocysts/mice and not treated. The other 3 groups were infected and orally treated with Nitazoxanide (NTZ) for the 3rd group, pomegranate red peel extract for the 4th group and pomegranate white peel extract for the 5th group. Blood samples were collected after 1 and 2 weeks post treatment for protein profile, liver enzymes and antioxidant activity evaluation. After 3 weeks, all animals were sacrificed and ileal tissues were embedded in paraffin for histopathological examination. The results showed that pomegranate peel extracts were rich in phenolic compounds, had high antioxidant activity and therapeutic effect on C. parvum in experimentally infected mice. Red peel extract diminished C. parvum oocysts count significantly in experimentally infected mice than white peel and NTZ treatments. Also, the histopathological examination revealed that red peel treated mice ileal sections showed a great enhancement in the shape and structure of villi towards normal structure than other treated groups. Most of the measured biochemical parameters after 2 weeks’ treatment with red pomegranate peel and NTZ were enhanced in their concentrations towards the healthy normal status. In conclusion, this study showed the effectiveness of Nano-form of pomegranate white and red peel extracts against C. parvum oocysts. Pomegranate red peel extract was found to have antioxidant activity that could significantly enhance the serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress towards the healthy normal status. Furthermore, it is suggested that pomegranate peel should be separated and used in the daily animal diet or as a functional beavarage for human as accepted from the panelists to give protective effects against this parasite as well as to improve health benefits.

Keywords

Cryptosporidium parvum Therapeutic effect Pomegranate peel Nano-form Antiparasitic beverage Biochemical parameters Antioxidant activity 

Notes

Author contributions statement

All authors prepared the research plan and the design of experiments. Aboelsoued D. separated C. parvum oocysts from calf fecal samples, carried out the experimental infection in mice, administrated the therapeutic doses, collected mice fecal pellets everyday and counted oocysts in feces throughout the experiment. Abo-Aziza F. collected the blood samples from mice, separated sera and carried out the biochemical analysis including protein profile, liver enzymes and serum antioxidant activity. Mahmoud M. prepared pomegranate peel powder by milling to achieve Nano-form, determination of proximate composition, droplet size measurement, total phenolics and polyphenols and antioxidant activities. Also, beverage preparation and sensory evaluation. Abdel Megeed K. and Abu El Ezz N. participated in dose preparation and sacrificing of mice. Abu El Ezz N, Abdel Megeed K. and Aboelsoued D. examined stained ileal sections and interpreted them histologically and pathologically. Aboelsoued D, Abo-Aziza F and Mahmoud M analyzed, interpreted the data and prepared the manuscript. All authors had critically read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts or competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Parasitology and Animal DiseasesNational Research CentreDokkiEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Food TechnologyNational Research CentreDokkiEgypt

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