A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goat from Benin, West-Africa
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Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonosis responsible for abortion and congenital malformation in animal and human. The present study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats from Benin. A total of 368 small ruminants: 215 serum samples from sheep raised in Sahelian area of North Benin and 153 serum samples from goats raised in a family farm from South-Benin, were collected and screened for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies by the ELISA-indirect method. The results show the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG in 53% (83/153) of goats and 1.4% of sheep (3/215). Age, sex and breed did not seem to affect the frequency of this infection. Among goats, T. gondii infection was higher in animals reared in the coastal zone (Cotonou municipality) than those raised on the island (Allada municipality) [odds ratio (OR) = 4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–15.002, p = 0.032, (χ2) test]. Humidity would be the determining factor in the disparity of recorded infection rates among sheep and goat. The high prevalence of caprine toxoplasmosis observed in southern Benin shows strong environmental contamination. Sensitization campaigns should therefore be undertaken by the public health authorities to inform the inhabitants of this area about risks and preventive measures of this zoonose.
KeywordsZoonose Toxoplasma Sheep Seroprevalence Goat Benin
Laboratoire de Diagnostic Véterinaire et de Sérosurveillance de Parakou (LADISERO/Bénin), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Benin for serological and molecular diagnosis (alphabetic order by surname): Akpo Ghislaine, Adjin Rachida and Tohozin Rogatien.
ABNT and YA conducted the survey and wrote the manuscript. AS helped in interpreting the results and worked on the manuscript. PS and JMA performed statistical analyses and designed the figures. GLA aided to perform the serological analyses and interpretation of results. MNA, IY and SF participated in the planning and supervision of the work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors state that they have no competing interests.
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