Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 893–900 | Cite as

Assessment of the effect of Allium sativum on serum nitric oxide level and hepatic histopathology in experimental cystic echinococcosis in mice

  • Nehad Mahmoud Ali
  • Ayman Nabil IbrahimEmail author
  • Naglaa Samier Ahmed
Original Article


The current study was carried out to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on experimental cystic echinococcosis by measuring the serum nitric oxide level and studying hepatic histopathological changes. The experimental animals were divided into five groups, ten mice in each, group (I): prophylactic; group (II): therapeutic; group (III): prophylactic and therapeutic; group (IV): infected nontreated; group (V): non infected non treated. The results showed that serum nitric oxide was significantly increased as a result of infection in all infected groups compared to group V. Statistical significant difference was noted in serum nitrate level in group I at 1st and 8th week post infection compared to the same time interval in group IV. In group II, statistical significance was noticed only at the 1st week post infection. Statistical significant difference was noted in serum nitrate level in group III at 1st, 4th, 6th and 8th week post infection compared to same time interval in group IV. Hydatid cysts developed in livers of mice of group IV as early as 4 weeks of infection while no cysts were found in groups I,II and III. Histopathologically there were moderate pathological changes in group I and group II as hepatocytes showed moderate steatosis, moderate venous congestion and inflammatory cellular infiltrate with foci of degeneration and necrosis. While livers of mice of group III showed mild steatosis, mild venous congestion, mild inflammatory cellular infiltrate, no necrosis and no biliary hyperplasia. Accordingly, that garlic (Allium sativum) may be a promising phototherapeutic agent for cystic echinococcosis


Cystic echinococcosis Allium sativum Garlic Nitric oxide Histopathology 


  1. Al-Kuraishi AH (2009) Histopathological Changes of Experimental Hydatidosis in Liver and Spleen of Albino Mice: age and Sex Effect. J Fac Med Baghdad 51(4):423–428Google Scholar
  2. Araj GF, Matossian RM, Malakian AH (1977) The host response in secondary hydatidosis of mice. II. Cell mediated immunity. Z Parasitenkd 52(1):31–38Google Scholar
  3. Baz A, Hernández A, Dematteis S, Carol H, Nieto A (1995) Idiotypic modulation of the antibody response of mice to Echinococcus granulosus antigens. Immunology 84(3):350–354PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker K, Frieling T, Saleh A, Häussinger D (1997) Resolution of hydatid liver cyst by spontaneous rupture into the biliary tract. J Hepatol 26(6):1408–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beiting DP, Bliss SK, Schlafer DH, Roberts VL, Appleton JA (2004) Interleukin-10 limits local and body cavity inflammation during infection with muscle-stage Trichinella spiralis. Infect Immun 72(6):3129–3137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogdan C, Thüring H, Dlaska M, Röllinghoff M, Weiss G (1997) Mechanism of suppression of macrophage nitric oxide release by IL-13: influence of the macrophage population. J Immunol 159(9):4506–4513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brunet LR, Beall M, Dunne DW, Pearce EJ (1999) Nitric oxide and the Th2 response combine to prevent severe hepatic damage during Schistosoma mansoni infection. J Immunol 163(9):4976–4984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Das I, Khan NS, Sooranna SR (1995) Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic applications. Curr Med Res Opin 13(5):257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dematteis S, Baz A, Rottenberg M, Fernández C, Orn A, Nieto A (1999) Antibody and Th1/Th2-type responses in BALB/c mice inoculated with live or dead Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. Parasite Immunol 21(1):19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eskandarian AA (2012) Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices. J Res Med Sci 17(11):1011–1014PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Fani MM, Kohanteb J, Dayaghi M (2007) Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 25(4):164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garcia LS (2007) Tissue cestodes. Diagnostic medical parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, pp 381–406Google Scholar
  13. Liew FY, Wei XQ, Proudfoot L (1997) Cytokines and nitric oxide as effector molecules against parasitic infections. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 352(1359):1311–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lun ZR, Burri C, Menzinger M, Kaminsky R (1994) Antiparasitic activity of diallyl trisulfide (Dasuansu) on human and animal pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma spp., Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia) in vitro. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 74(1):51–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mantawy MM, Mahmoud AH (2002) Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum feeding on glucose, glycogen, protein bands profile and phenol oxidase activity in Biomphalaria alexandrina. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 32(1):271–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. McManus DP, Zhang W, Li J, Bartley PB (2003) Echinococcosis. Lancet 362(9392):1295–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miranda KM, Espey MG, Yamada K, Krishna M, Ludwick N, Kim S, Jourd’heuil D, Grisham MB, Feelisch M, Fukuto JM, Wink DA (2000) Unique oxidative mechanisms for the reactive nitrogen oxide species, nitroxyl anion. J Biol Chem 276(3):1720–1727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mirelman D, Monheit D, Varon S (1987) Inhibition of growth of Entamoeba histolytica by allicin, the active principle of garlic extract (Allium sativum). J Infect Dis 156(1):243–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moazeni M, Nazer A (2010) In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst. World J Surg 34(11):2677–2681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moncada S, Higgs A (1993) The l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. N Engl J Med 329(27):2002–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morihara N, Sumioka I, Moriguchi T, Uda N, Kyo E (2002) Aged garlic extract enhances production of nitric oxide. Life Sci 71(5):509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pawlowski ZS, Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz M, Skommer J, Paul M, Rokossowski H, Suchocka E, Schantz PM (2001) Impact of health education on knowledge and prevention behavior for congenital toxoplasmosis: the experience in Poznań Poland. Health Educ Res 16(4):493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Riad HAN, Taha AH, Mahmoud IY (2009) Effects of garlic on albino mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni: a parasitological and ultrastructural study Tropical. Biomedicine 26(1):40–50Google Scholar
  24. Robinson RD, Arme C (1985) Echinococcus granulosus: failure of the eosin-exclusion test to demonstrate death of protoscoleces. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 79(1):117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rogan MT (1998) T-cell activity associated with secondary infections and implanted cysts of Echinococcus granulosus in BALB/c mice. Parasite Immunol 20(11):527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rogan MT, Craig PS (1997) Immunology of Echinococcus granulosus infections. Acta Trop 67(1–2):7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ross ZM, O’Gara EA, Hill DJ, Sleightholme HV, Maslin DJ (2001) Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against human enteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Appl Environ Microbiol 67(1):475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sadjjadi SM, Zoharizadeh MR, Panjeshahin MR (2008) In vitro screening of different Allium sativum extracts on hydatid cysts protoscoleces. J Investig Surg 21(6):318–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schäfer G, Kaschula CH (2014) The immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds in cancer chemoprevention. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 14(2):233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sener G, Satyroglu H, Ozer-Sehirli A, Kacmaz A (2003) Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against oxidative organ damage in a rat model of thermal injury. Life Sci 73:8–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Severi MA, Ferragut G, Nieto A (1997) Antibody response of Echinococcus granulosus infected mice: protoscolex specific response during infection is associated with decreasing specific IgG1/IgG3 ratio as well as decreasing avidity. Parasite Immunol 19(12):545–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Soffar SA, Mokhtar GM (1991) Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 21(2):497–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Steers NJ, Rogan MT, Heath S (2001) In-vitro susceptibility of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus to nitric oxide and the effect of the laminated layer on nitric oxide production. Parasite Immunol 23(8):411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Touil-Boukoffa C, Bauvois B, Sancéau J, Hamrioui B, Wietzerbin J (1998) Production of nitric oxide (NO) in human hydatidosis: relationship between nitrite production and interferon-gamma levels. Biochimie 80(8–9):739–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ulger S, Barut H, Tunc M, Aydin E, Aydınkarahaliloğlu E, Gokcek A, Karaoğlanoğlu N (2013) Radiation therapy for resistant sternal hydatid disease. Strahlenther Onkol 189(6):508–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nehad Mahmoud Ali
    • 1
  • Ayman Nabil Ibrahim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Naglaa Samier Ahmed
    • 2
  1. 1.Parasitology Department, Faculty of MedicineAin-Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Pathology Department, Faculty of MedicineAin-Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations