The effect of chitosan nanospheres on the immunogenicity of Toxoplasma lysate vaccine in mice
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Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease, is a huge challenge for which there is no effective vaccine up till now. In this study, chitosan nanospheres encapsulated with Toxoplasma lysate vaccine was evaluated for its ability to protect mice against both acute and chronic toxoplasmosis models of infection. Results showed that chitosan nanospheres were equally effective to Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in enhancing the efficacy of Toxoplasma lysate vaccine. The effectiveness was demonstrated by the delayed death of vaccinated mice following challenge either with virulent RH or avirulent Me49 strains, the significant decrease in parasite density in different organs, significant increase in the humoral and cellular immune response (IgG and IFN γ) with a marked reduction of pathological changes in the different organs. However chitosan nanospheres were superior to FIA due to their cost effective preparation and much less necrotic changes induced in the studied organs. The success of chitosan polymer as an alternative to commonly used adjuvants paves the way for the use of other newly developed polymers to be used in the field of vaccine development.
KeywordsCrude Toxoplasma lysate vaccine Virulent RH Toxoplasma strain Avirulent Me49 Toxoplasma strain Encapsulated chitosan nanospheres
We are grateful to Professor Ashraf Brakat, Department of Epidemiology and Zoonotic Diseases, National Research Center, Doki, Giza, Egypt for providing the avirulent Me49 Toxoplasma strain. Special thanks to Professor Rafaat Shaban, Epidemiology and Zoonotic Diseases, National Research Center, Doki and Dr. Mona Mohamed Tolba, Lecturer in Medical Research Institute for their assistance in ELISA technique. The technical support of Mrs. Neamat Ahmed Hassan is greatly appreciated.
Conflict of interests
We declare that the authors have no conflict of interest.
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