Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 580–585 | Cite as

Comparison of microscopic and immunoassay examination in the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa of humans in Mansoura, Egypt

  • Shaadi F. Elswaifi
  • James R. Palmieri
  • Nora El-TantawyEmail author
  • Mona El-Hussiny
  • Tarek Besheer
  • Ekbal Abohashem
Original Article


Protozoal diseases are prevalent globally and especially in developing countries that have relatively lower socioeconomic populations such as Egypt. Direct microscopic examination (DME) is used for the detection and identification of protozoa but lacks sufficient reliability, and thus may be detrimental in obtaining accurate diagnostic or epidemiological data. In this study, we determine the prevalence of infections by Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica in humans in Egypt. Furthermore, we determine the reliability of DME in determining infections caused by these protozoa and compare the results to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results indicate that the prevalence of giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and entamoebiasis is 38, 22, and 16 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DME for detection of G. intestinalis is 45 and 99 %, for Cryptosporidium 66 and 99 %, and for Entamoeba 45 and 100 %, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that ELISA is more reliable for diagnostic and epidemiologic study purposes.


Prevalence Diagnosis Entamoeba Cryptosporidium Giardia ELISA 



The authors acknowledge Dr. Joel Herbein, TechLab, for providing the ELISA kits and Mrs. Jennifer Cacciola, TechLab, for technical support.


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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaadi F. Elswaifi
    • 1
  • James R. Palmieri
    • 1
  • Nora El-Tantawy
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mona El-Hussiny
    • 3
  • Tarek Besheer
    • 4
  • Ekbal Abohashem
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Infectious, and Emerging DiseasesEdward Via College of Osteopathic MedicineBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of MedicineMansoura UniversityMansoura CityEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of MedicineMansoura UniversityMansoura CityEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of MedicineMansoura UniversityMansoura CityEgypt

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