Advertisement

Silicon

pp 1–19 | Cite as

Statistical Modeling and Surface Texture Study of Polished Silicon Wafer Si (100) using Chemically Assisted Double Disk Magnetic Abrasive Finishing

  • Kheelraj Pandey
  • Utkarsh Pandey
  • Pulak M. Pandey
Original Paper
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

The present paper aims to analyze the surface finish of polished silicon wafer by chemically etching with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and mechanical polishing by Double Disk Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (DDMAF) process. The study is emphasized to study the effect of process parameters i.e. polishing speed, working gap, abrasive mesh number and percentage weight of KOH on the surface roughness (Ra). Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to plan the experiments and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to analyze the impact of each process parameter on surface roughness. Regression equation for surface roughness in terms of significant process parameters has been developed to determine the surface roughness of polished silicon wafer. The equation has been further optimized using optimizer available with Minitab 17 and Genetic Algorithm (GA) tool box available with MatLab 16, to obtain the optimum process parameters and to prefigure the minimum surface roughness. The confirmatory experiment was carried out at optimum parameters and the prefigured results were found to be closely matched with the experimental findings. The communication further vocalizes the study of surface integrity for the unpolished sample to polished sample at optimum parameter using SEM and AFM images.

Keywords

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) Double disk magnetic abrasive finishing (DDMAF) Response surface methodology (RSM) Flexible magnetic abrasive brush (FMAB) Surface roughness Optimization Response optimizer Genetic algorithm (GA) 

Nomenclature

adj.MS

adjusted mean squares

adj.SS

adjusted sum of squares

DF

degree of freedom

Ra

surface roughness of polished silicon wafer (nm)

SS

sum of squares

t

t-distribution value

Ve

error variance

X1

Polishing speed (rpm)

X2

Working gap (mm)

X3

Abrasive mesh number of Al2O3

X4

Concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH)

α

level of confidence interval

R2

Coefficient of multiple determination

ΔRa

Precision of the surface roughness model (nm)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sreejith PS, Udupa G, Noor YBM, Ngoi BKA (2001) Recent advances in machining of silicon wafers for semiconductor applications. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 17(2):157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Muratov VA, Fischer TE (2000) Tribochemical polishing. Annu Rev Mater Sci 30:27–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zantye PB, Kumar A, Sikder AK (2004) Chemical mechanical planarization for microelectronics applications. Mater Sci Eng R Reports 45:89–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2004.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamaguchi H, Shinmura T (1999) Study of the surface modification resulting from an internal magnetic abrasive finishing process. Wear 225–229:246–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(99)00013-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee ES, Hwang SC, Lee JT, et al (2009) Signal analysis and real-time monitoring for wafer polishing processes using the Ch computing environment. J Mech Sci Technol 23:2814–2822.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-009-0728-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    El-Taweel TA (2008) Modelling and analysis of hybrid electrochemical turning-magnetic abrasive finishing of 6061 Al/Al2O3 composite. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 37:705–714.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-007-1019-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kwak J, Kang H (2011) Assessment on magnetic flux density of magnetic array table in magnetic abrasive polishing process. IIGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim SO, Kwak JS (2008) Magnetic force improvement and parameter optimization for magnetic abrasive polishing of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China (English Ed 18:s369–s373.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(10)60234-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yamaguchi H, Shinmura T (2000) Study of an internal magnetic abrasive finishing using a pole rotation system. Discussion of the characteristic abrasive behavior. Precis Eng 24:237–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-6359(00)00037-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jain VK, Kumar P, Behera PK, Jayswal SC (2001) Effect of working gap and circumferential speed on the performance of magnetic abrasive finishing process. Wear 250–251:384–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00642-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kala P, Pandey PM (2015) Comparison of finishing characteristics of two paramagnetic materials using double disc magnetic abrasive finishing. J Manuf Process 17:63–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2014.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Estragnat E, Tang G, Liang H, et al (2004) Experimental investigation on mechanisms of silicon chemical mechanical polishing. J Electron Mater 33:334–339.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-004-0140-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sihag N, Kala P, Pandey PM (2015) Chemo Assisted Magnetic Abrasive Finishing: Experimental Investigations. Procedia CIRP 26:539–543.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mishra V, Goel H, Mulik RS, Pandey PM (2014) Determining work-brush interface temperature in magnetic abrasive finishing process. J Manuf Process 16(1):248–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2013.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mulik RS, Srivastava V, Pandey PM (2012) Experimental investigations and modeling of temperature in the work-brush interface during ultrasonic assisted magnetic abrasive finishing process. Mater Manuf Process 27 (1):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2010.515647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ozturk S, Kayabasi E, Celik E, Kurt H (2018) Determination of lapping parameters for silicon wafer using an artificial neural network. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 29(1):260–270.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-017-7912-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdulkadir LN, Abou-El-Hossein K, Jumare AI, Odedeyi PB, Liman MM, Olaniyan TA (2018) Ultra-precision diamond turning of optical silicon—a review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96(1–4):173–208.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1529-x Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guan F, Hu H, Li S, Liu Z, Peng X, Shi F (2018) A novel Lap-MRF method for large aperture mirrors. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(9-12):4645–4657.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1498-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghosh G, Dalabehera RK, Sidpara A (2018) Parametric study on influence functions in magnetorheological finishing of single crystal silicon. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2330-1
  20. 20.
    Piñeiro A, Black A, Medina J, et al (2013) The use of potassium peroxidisulphate and Oxoneas oxidizers for the chemical mechanical polishing of silicon wafers. Wear 303:446–450.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2013.03.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Han X, Hu Y, Yu S (2009) Investigation of material removal mechanism of silicon wafer in the chemical mechanical polishing process using molecular dynamics simulation method. Appl Phys A 95(2):899–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Firlar E, Çýnar S, Kashyap S, Akinc M, Prozorov T (2015) Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ. Sci Report 5:9830.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep09830 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dehzangi A, Larki F, Majlis BY, et al (2013) Impact of KOH etching on nanostructure fabricated by local anodic oxidation method. Int J Electrochem Sci 8:8084–8096Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Biswas K, Kal S (2006) Etch characteristics of KOH, TMAH and dual doped TMAH for bulk micromachining of silicon. Microelectronics J 37:519–525.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mejo.2005.07.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Montgomery DC (2008) Design and analysis of experiments. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fang FZ, Venkatesh VC (1998) Diamond cutting of silicon with nanometric finish. CIRP Annals 47(1):45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh DK, Jain VK, Raghuram V (2004) Parametric study of magnetic abrasive finishing process. J Mater Process Technol 149(1-3):22–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2003.10.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kala P, Pandey PM (2017) Experimental investigations into ultrasonic-assisted double-disk magnetic abrasive finishing of two paramagnetic materials. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 231 (6):1021–1038.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0954405415581153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Syswerda G (1989) Uniform crossover in genetic algorithms. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Ins, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology, DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Research Associate, Mechanical Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology, DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations