, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 1001–1010 | Cite as

Beneficial Effects of Silicon Application in Alleviating Salinity Stress in Halophytic Puccinellia Distans Plants

  • Zahra Soleimannejad
  • Ahmad AbdolzadehEmail author
  • Hamid Reza Sadeghipour
Original Paper


Little is known on the impact of silicon (Si) nutrition in halophytes. Accordingly, response of Si accumulating halophyte Puccinellia distans to Si nutrition was investigated. The experiment was carried out as factorial in a completely randomized design. Plants were hydroponically raised for six weeks under two salinity (0 and 200 mmol L− 1 NaCl) and Si (0 and 1.5 mmol L− 1 Na2SiO3) levels. Si improved plant dry weight and water relations under salinity. Salinity decreased the plant relative water content (RWC) but Si increased this parameter. Transpiration rate and stomatal density however, declined by salinity and Si even intensified these salt effect. Si affected salt tolerance mechanisms in P. distans. Thus, +Si plants had greater soluble sugars and amino acids and lower Na+ but increased cellulose and lignin and Na+ secretion from leaves. These possibly indicate more efficient osmotic adjustment and better operation of either salt exclusion and / or excretion mechanisms. In congruence, Si greatly enhanced the activity of H+-ATPase in both roots and shoots. +Si plants had reduced stress symptoms evidenced by lower proline and reduced electrolyte leakage indicating better membrane functioning. Altogether, Si application led to better performance of P. distans plants under saline conditions.


ATPase activity Halophyte Puccinellia distans Salinity Silicon 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We thank Golestan University Deputy of Research and Office of Higher Education for financial support to Z. Soleimannejad M.Sc. research project.

Supplementary material

12633_2018_9960_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.6 mb)
(DOC 1.64 MB)


  1. 1.
    Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann Rev Plant Biol 59:651–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salt tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effect on plants. Ecotox Environ Safe 60(3):324–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 5:503–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2015) Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes. Ann Bot 115:327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Duarte B, Sleimi N, Caçador I (2014) Biophysical and biochemical constraints imposed by salt stress: learning from halophytes. Front Plant Sci 5:746–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sommer M, Kaczorek D, Kuzyakov Y, Breuer J (2006) Silicon pools and fluxes in soils and landscapes– a review. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 169:310–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Epstein E (1994) The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91(1):11–1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gong HJ, Randall DP, Flowers TJ (2006) Silicon deposition in the root reduces sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings by reducing bypass flow. Plant Cell Environ 29:1970–1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liang YC, Zhang WH, Chen Q, Liu Y, Ding RX (2006) Effect of exogenous silicon (Si) on h+–ATPase activity, phospholipids and fluidity of plasma membrane in leaves of salt–stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Environ Exp Bot 57:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs D, Murillo–Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin AR (2008) Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environ. Exp Bot 62:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hashemi A, Abdolzadeh A, Sadeghipour HR (2010) Beneficial effects of silicon nutrition in alleviating salinity stress in hydroponically grown canola, Brassica napus L. plants. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 56:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sattar A, Cheema MA, Ali H, Sher A, Ijaz M, Hussain M, Hassan W, Abbas T (2016) Silicon mediates the changes in water relations, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic antioxidants activity and nutrient uptake in maize seedling under salt stress. Grassland Sci 62:262–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yeo AR, Flowers S, Rao G, Welfare K, Senanayake N, Flowers TJ (1999) Silicon reduces sodium up take in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline conditions and this is accounted for by a reduction in the transpirational bypass flow. Plant Cell Environ 22:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Romero–Aranda MR, Jurado O, Cuartero J (2006) Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant growth by improving plant water status. J Plant Physiol 163:847–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fleck T, Nye A, Repenning TC, Stahl F, Zahn M, Schenk KM (2011) Silicon enhances suberization and lignification in roots of rice (Oryza sativa). J Exp Bot 62:2001–2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Coskun D, Britto DT, Huynh WQ, Kronzucker HJ (2016) The role of silicon in higher plants under salinity and drought stress. Front Plant Sci 7:1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yin L, Wang S, Tanaka K, Fujihara S, Itai A, Den X (2016) Silicon mediated changes in polyamines participate in silicon-induced salt tolerance in Sorghum bicolor L. Plant Cell Environ 39:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Markovich O, Steiner E, Kouril S, Tarkowski P, Aharoni A, Elbaum R (2017) Silicon promotes cytokinin biosynthesis and delays senescence in Arabidopsis and Sorghum. Plant Cell Environ 40:1189–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tarasoffa CS, Mallory–Smitha CA, Ballb DA (2007) Comparative plant responses of Puccinellia distans and Puccinellia nuttalliana to sodic versus normal soil types. J Arid Environ 70:403–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bandani M, Abdolzadeh A (2007) Effects of silicon nutrition on salinity tolerance of Puccinellia distans (jacq.) parl. J Agr Sci Nat Resour 14(3):111–119Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Langlosi E, Bonis A, Bouzille JB (2003) Sediment and plant dynamics in saltmarshes pioneer xone: Puccinellia as a key species. Estuar Coast Shelf S 56:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alshammary SF, Qian YL, Wallner SJ (2004) Growth response of four turfgrass species to salinity. Agr Water Manag 66:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mateos-Naranjo E, Andrades-Moreno L, Davy AJ (2013) Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora. Plant Physiol Biochem 63:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water culture method for growing plant without soil. California Agri. Exp. Sta. Cir. No. 347. University of California Berkley Press, CA, p 347Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abdolzadeh A, Raghimi M, Mehraban P, Ghlipour M, Mierzaali E (2012) The Potential of Puccinellia distans for cultivation in uncommon salty waters. J Water Soil 26(2):484–493Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kiani CZ, Abdolzadeh A, Sadeghipour HR (2014) Silicon nutrition potentiates the antioxidant metabolism of rice plants under iron toxicity. Acta Physiol Plant 36:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kim YH, Khan AL, Waqas M, Shim JK, Kim DH, Lee KY, Lee IJ (2014) Silicon application to rice root zone influenced the phytohormonal and antioxidant responses under salinity stress. J Plant Growth Regul 33(2):137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Elliot CL, Snyder GH (1999) Autoclave–indused digestion for the colorimetric determination of silicon: Silicon. Annu Rev Plant Phys 50:641–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McCready RM, Guggolz J, Silviera V, Owens HS (1950) Determination of Starch and amylose in vegetables. Anal Chem 22(9):1156–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bradford M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lavid N, Schwrtz A, Yarden O, Tel-Or E (2001) The involvement of polyphenols and peroxidase activities in heavy–metal accumulation by epidermal glands of waterlily (Nymphaeaceae). Planta 212:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yemm EW, Cocking EC, Ricketts RE (1955) The determination of amino-acids with ninhydrin. Analyst 80:209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kochert A (1987) Carbohydrate determination by phenol–sulfuric acid method. In: Hellebust J A, Craige J S (eds) Handbook of physiology and biochemical methods. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 95–97Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bates LS, Waldern RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kokubo A, Kuraishi S, Sakurai N (1989) Culm strength of barley. Plant Physiol 91:876–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Correa–Aragunde N, Lombardo C, Lamattina L (2008) Nitric oxide: an active nitrogen molecule that modulates cellulose synthesis in tomato roots. New Phytol 179:386–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zimmer M (1999) Combined methods for the determination of lignin and cellulose in leaf litter. Sci Soil 4:20–32Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lutts S, Kinet JM, Bouharmont J (1996) Nacl–induced senescence in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. Ann Bot 78:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hossain MB, Matsuyama N, Kawasaki M (2016) Hydathode morphology and role of guttation in excreting sodium at different concentrations of sodium chloride in eddo. Plant Prod Sci 19:528–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Romheld V (1984) Different strategies for iron acquisition in higher plants. Physiol Plant 70:231–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ames BN (1966) Assay of inorganic phosphate, total phosphate and phosphatases. Method Enzymol 8:115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Z1 Gerivani, Vashaee E, Sadeghipour HR, Aghdasi M, Shobbar ZS, Azimmohseni M (2016) Short versus long term effects of cyanide on sugar metabolism and transport in dormant walnut kernels. Plant Sci 252:193–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Janicka–Russak M, Kabaa K (2012) Abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide induce modification of plasma membrane h+–ATPase from Cucumis sativus L. roots under heat shock. J Plant Physiol 169:1607–1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gulzar S, Ajmal Khan M, Ungar IA, Liu X (2005) Influence of salinity on growth and osmotic relations of Sporobolus ioclados. Pakistan J Bot 37:119–129Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guo Q, Wang P, Ma Q, Zhang JL, Bao AK, Wang SM (2012) Selective transport capacity for K+ over Na+ is linked to the expression levels of ptSOS1 in halophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora. Funct Plant Biol 39(12):1047–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Acosta-Motos JR, Ortuño M F, Bernal-Vicente A, Diaz-Vivancos P, Sanchez-Blanco MJ, Hernandez JA (2017) Plant responses to salt stress: Adaptive mechanisms. Agron 7:1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Farshidi M, Abdolzadeh A, Sadeghipour HR (2012) Silicon nutrition alleviates physiological disorders imposed by salinity in hydroponically grown canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. Acta Physiol Plant 34:1779–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chai Q (2010) Silicon effects on Poa pratensis responses to salinity. Hort Sci 45(12):1876–1881Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hosseini SA, Maillard A, Hajirezaei MR, Ali N, Schwarzenberg A, Jamois F, Yvin JC (2017) Induction of barley silicon transporter HvLsi1 and HvLsi2, increased silicon concentration in the shoot and regulated starch and ABA homeostasis under osmotic stress and concomitant potassium deficiency. Front Plant Sci 8:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rios JJ, Martínez-ballesta MC, Ruiz JM, Blasco B, Carvajal M (2017) Silicon-mediated improvement in plant salinity tolerance: The role of aquaporins. Front Plant Sci 8:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Slama I, Abdelly C, Bouchereau A, Flowers T, Savoure A (2015) Diversity, distribution and roles of osmoprotective compounds accumulated in halophytes under abiotic stress. Ann Bot 115:433–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Petridisa A, Theriosa I, Samourisb G, Tananakic C (2012) Salinity–induced changes in phenolic compounds in leaves and roots of four olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) and their relationship to antioxidant activity. Environ Exp Bot 79:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang LW, Showalter AM, Ungar IA (1997) Effect of salinity on growth, ion content and cell wall chemistry in Atriplex prostrate (Chenopodiaceae). Am J Bot 84(9):1247–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Suzuki S, Ma JF, Yamamoto N, Hattori T, Sakamoto M, Umezawa T (2012) Silicon deficiency promotes lignin accumulation in rice. Plant Biotechnol 29:391–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cosgrove DJ (2005) Growth of the plant cell wall. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:850–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhang C, Wang L, Zhang W, Zhang F (2013) Do lignification and silicification of the cell wall precede silicon deposition in the silica cell of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaf epidermis? Plant Soil 372:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyGolestan UniversityGorganIran

Personalised recommendations