, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 471–485 | Cite as

Rotary Ultrasonic Drilling of Silica Glass BK-7: Microstructural Investigation and Process Optimization Through TOPSIS

  • Vikas KumarEmail author
  • Hari Singh
Original Paper


Laser and optics industries, are continueosly looking for glasses that posses excellent optical properties. Silica based glass BK7 is emerging as the pragmatic solution to meet these industrial needs that too with low fabrication cost. Conventional machining processes find it hard to process BK7 due to high hardness and low fracture toughness. In order to overcome the practical barriers of all the alternative processes, rotary ultrasonic machining has been attempted for drilling BK7. Taguchi based L9 array has been used for experimentation. Feed rate, tool rotational speed and ultrasonic power have been chosen as input variables. The drilling efficacy was evaluated considering the chipping width (CW), Taper (T) and material removal rate (MRR) as output responses. Main effects plots were drawn to reveal the effect of process variables on performance indices. ANOVA was used to identify the significant factors. It also figured out the extent to which significant factors influence the output responses. As Taguchi approach is not capable of simultaneous optimization of responses, TOPSIS approach was coupled with it for multi-response optimization. The predicted optimal solution, feed 0.60 mm/min, tool RPM 5000 and ultrasonic power 70% yielded the superior performance. The dominance of feed over other input factors made it the most crucial factor. Fractography highlighted the mixed flow of material at low feed rate, giving rise to superior surface finish. All the findings were confirmed experimentally as well as statistically. All the predicted results were found finely tuned with experimental results during confirmation experiments at 95% confidence level.


Chipping Taper RUD Taguchi TOPSIS Microstructure 



Chipping width




Material removal rate


Tool rotational speed


Feed rate


Ultrasonic power


analysis of variance


Ultrasonic machining


Rotary ultrasonic machining


Rotary ultrasonic drilling


Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution


Signal to noise ratio


Mean value of chipping width


Mean value of taper


Mean value of material removal rate


Signal to noise ratio for chipping width


Signal to noise ratio for taper


Signal to noise ratio for material removal rate

\( {\overline{CW}_m} \)

Overall mean of chipping width

\( {\overline{T}_m} \)

Overall mean of taper

\( {\overline{MRR}_m} \)

Overall mean of material removal


Negative best solutions


Positive best solutions


Decision matrix


Normalized decision matrix


Weighted normalized matrix

\( {G}_{i}^{+} \)

Distance of alternative from positive best solution

\( {G}_{i}^{-} \)

Distance of alternative from negative best solution


Preference value


Confidence Interval


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The authors would like to acknowledge National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India for providing requisite facilities to accomplish this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology KurukshetraKurukshetraIndia

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