pp 1–10 | Cite as

Silicon Utilization Efficiency of Different Wheat Cultivars in a Calcareous Soil

  • Somayeh Saberian Ranjbar
  • Babak MotesharezadehEmail author
  • Farhad Moshiri
  • Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini
  • Hossein Ali Alikhani
Original Paper


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different silicon levels and sources on the efficiency of acquisition and utilization of silicon in seven wheat cultivars in a calcareous soil. The treatments consisted of silicon additions to the soil (control, 200, 400, and 1000 mg/kg as potassium silicate and 0, 50, and 100 mg/kg as nanoparticles) and seven wheat cultivars (Gonbad, Shiroudi, Shiraz, Mahdavi, Marvdasht, Bahar, and Parsi). The factorial experiment was carried out in three replications. The results showed that the application of silicon at different levels and from various sources, as well as wheat cultivars and their interactions with the silicon treatments, led to significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) in the root and shoot dry weights, the silicon concentration in the root and shoot, and the total silicon in the shoot. In addition, there was a significant relationship between the silicon level/source and wheat cultivars with all efficiency indices (at level of 1%). The results also show there is a significant (p ≤ 0.01) relationship between shoot silicon efficiency and silicon acquisition efficiency (0.72). Therefore, considering the role of silicon in stress alleviation, its application in wheat cultivars with higher acquisition efficiency can help the plant growth.


Wheat Utilization efficiency Acquisition Silicon Silicon Nano-particle Stress 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Financial support of this research by the University of Tehran and Soil and Water Research Institute of Iran under project number 13-10-1051-027-96018-960590 is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks to Kerangin Company for providing nano-silicate used in this research.


  1. 1.
    Sposito G (2008) The chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Řezanka T, Sigler K (2008) Biologically active compounds of semi-metals. Stud Nat Prod Chem 35:835–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ranganathan S, Suvarchala V, Rajesh Y, Prasad MS, Padmakumari A, Voleti S (2006) Effects of silicon sources on its deposition, chlorophyll content, and disease and pest resistance in rice. Biol Plant 50(4):713–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jawahar S, Vaiyapuri V (2013) Effect of sulphur and silicon fertilization on yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rice. Int Res J Chem 3(1):35–43Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hodson M, White PJ, Mead A, Broadley M (2005) Phylogenetic variation in the silicon composition of plants. Ann Bot 96(6):1027–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M (2013) Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages. Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Springer, New York, pp 25–87Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Epstein E, Bloom A (2005) Mineral nutrition of plants: principles and perspectives2nd edn. Sinauer Assoc. Inc, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abro SA, Qureshi R, Soomro FM, Mirbahar AA, Jakhar G (2009) Effects of silicon levels on growth and yield of wheat in silty loam soil. Pak J Bot 41(3):1385–1390Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim Y-H, Khan AL, Hamayun M, Kang SM, Beom YJ, Lee I-J (2011) Influence of short-term silicon application on endogenous physiohormonal levels of Oryza sativa L. under wounding stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 144(1–3):1175–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Bockhaven J, De Vleesschauwer D, Höfte M (2012) Towards establishing broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants: silicon leads the way. J Exp Bot 64(5):1281–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Batten GD (1992) A review of phosphorus efficiency in wheat. Plant Soil 146(1–2):163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fageria N, Baligar V (2005) Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Adv Agron 88:97–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma J (2004) Role of silicon in enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 50(1):11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (2007) Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Datnoff L, Snyder G, Korndorfer G (2001) Silicon in agriculture. Studies in plant science. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Narayanaswamy C, Prakash N (2009) Calibration and categorization of plant available silicon in rice soils of South India. J Plant Nutr 32(8):1237–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Riga P, Anza M (2003) Effect of magnesium deficiency on pepper growth parameters: implications for determination of magnesium-critical value. J Plant Nutr 26(8):1581–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cock JH, Yoshida S (1970) An assessment of tile effects of silicate application on rice by a simulation method. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 16(5):212–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perez J, Bax L, Escolano C (2004) Road maps at 2015 on nanotechnology application in the sectors of: materials, health and medical systems, energy. Report prepared by Willems &van den WildenbergGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liang QY, Hu B, Li C, Peng T, Jiang Z (2000) Study of the adsorption behavior of heavy metal ions on nanometer-size titanium dioxide with ICP-AES. Fresenius J Anal Chem 368(6):638–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fu F, Akagi T, Yabuki S (2002) Origin of silica particles found in the cortex of roots. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66(4):1265–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nikolic M, Nikolic N, Liang Y, Kirkby EA, Römheld V (2007) Germanium-68 as an adequate tracer for silicon transport in plants. Characterization of silicon uptake in different crop species. Plant Physiol 143(1):495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ma J, Miyake Y, Takahashi E (2001) Silicon as a beneficial element for crop plants. In Studies in Plant Science 8:17–39. ElsevierCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Epstein E (1999) Silicon. Annu Rev Plant Biol 50(1):641–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Malmir R, Motesharezadeh B, Tabrizi L (2017) Effect of silocon and nano-silicon sources on some morpho-physiological responses of Stevia, 4th Congress on Nano Technology in Agriculture Karaj IranGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bouyoucos GJ (1962) Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agron J 54(5):464–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Swift R, Sparks D (1996) Methods of soil analysis: part 3. Chemical methods, vol 5. Soil Science Society of America Book Series, Madison, pp 1018–1020Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haluschak P (2006) Laboratory methods of soil analysis. Canada-Manitoba Soil Survey 3–133Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37(1):29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Loeppert RH, Suarez DL (1996) Carbonate and gypsum. Methods of soil analysis part 3—chemical methods (Methods of Soil) (3): 437–474Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bashour I, Sayegh AA (2007) Methods of analysis for soils of arid and semi-arid regions. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 49–53Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Malakouti MJ, Tehrani MM (1999) Effect of micronutrients on the yield and quality of agricultural products. Tarbiat Modares Press, Iran 301 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Elliott C, Snyder GH (1991) Autoclave-induced digestion for the colorimetric determination of silicon in rice straw. J Agric Food Chem 39(6):1118–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fageria NK (2008) The use of nutrients in crop plant. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ahmad A, Afzal M, Ahmad AUH, Tahir M (2013) Effect of foliar application of silicon on yield and quality of rice (Oryza Sativa L). Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 46(3):21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gao X, Zou C, Wang L, Zhang F (2005) Silicon improves water use efficiency in maize plants. J Plant Nutr 27(8):1457–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mali M, Aery N (2009) Effect of silicon on growth, biochemical constituents, and mineral nutrition of cowpea. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 40(7–8):1041–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dehghanipoodeh S, Ghobadi C, Baninasab B, Gheysari M, Bidabadi SS (2016) Effects of potassium silicate and nanosilica on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of a commercial strawberry (fragaria× ananassa cv.‘camarosa’). J Plant Nutr 39(4):502–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ma JF, Yamaji N (2006) Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci 11(8):392–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Khoshgoftarmanesh A, Shariatmadari H, Karimian N, Khajehpour M (2006) Responses of wheat genotypes to zinc fertilization under saline soil conditions. J Plant Nutr 29(9):1543–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chen S, Xing J, Lan H (2012) Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and physiological response of a halophyte species Chenopodium glaucum. Afr J Biotechnol 11(40):9572–9581Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Genc Y, McDonald GK, Graham RD (2006) Contribution of different mechanisms to zinc efficiency in bread wheat during early vegetative stage. Plant Soil 281(1–2):353–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cakmak I, Torun B, Erenoğlu B, Öztürk L, Marschner H, Kalayci M, Ekiz H, Yilmaz A (1998) Morphological and physiological differences in the response of cereals to zinc deficiency. Euphytica 100(1):349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rengel Z, Graham RD (1996) Uptake of zinc from chelate-buffered nutrient solutions by wheat genotypes differing in zinc efficiency. J Exp Bot 47(2):217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cakmak I, Ekiz H, Yilmaz A, Torun B, Köleli N, Gültekin I, Alkan A, Eker S (1997) Differential response of rye, triticale, bread and durum wheats to zinc deficiency in calcareous soils. Plant Soil 188(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fageria N, Slaton N, Baligar V (2003) Nutrient management for improving lowland rice productivity and sustainability. Adv Agron 80:63–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somayeh Saberian Ranjbar
    • 1
  • Babak Motesharezadeh
    • 1
  • Farhad Moshiri
    • 2
  • Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini
    • 1
  • Hossein Ali Alikhani
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil Science DepartmentUniversity College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of TehranKarajIran
  2. 2.Soil and Water Research InstituteAgricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (areo)KarajIran

Personalised recommendations