Electrical stimulation test for epidural catheter placement after receiving intrathecal local anesthetic during a combined spinal-epidural technique for Cesarean delivery: confirmation of the spinal nerve root as epidural site of action

  • Malcolm Stewart
  • Brendan Carvalho
  • Ban C. H. TsuiEmail author


Conflicts of interest

Dr. Tsui is the inventor of the Epidural Stimulation Test.

Funding statement


Editorial responsibility

This submission was handled by Dr. Hilary P. Grocott, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia.


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Copyright information

© Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain MedicineStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

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