Advertisement

Characterizations of dissimilar S32205/316L welds using austenitic, super-austenitic and super-duplex filler metals

Abstract

UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel plates were welded to AISI 316L stainless steel using the pulsed gas tungsten arc welding process with three different filler metals: ER2594, ER312, and ER385. The microstructures of the welds were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and all of the specimens were evaluated by ferrite measurements. The mechanical properties were studied through hardness, tensile, and impact tests. In addition, the pitting resistance equivalent number was calculated and cyclic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the weld metal. The results showed that chromium nitride was formed in the heat-affected zone of the duplex side, whereas no sigma phase was detected in any of the specimens. The ferrite number increased from the root pass to the final pass. The absorbed energies of the impact test decreased with increasing ferrite number, whereas the tensile strength was enhanced. The fully austenitic microstructure of the specimen welded with ER385 exhibited the highest resistance to pitting corrosion at 25°C, and the super-duplex weld metal presented superior corrosion resistance at 50°C.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

References

  1. [1]

    D.L. Olson, T.A. Siewart, S. Liu, and G.R. Edwards, ASM Handbook, Volume 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering, ASM International, Ohio, 1993, p. 1170.

  2. [2]

    S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002, p. 431.

  3. [3]

    K.S. Prasad, C.S. Rao, and D.N. Rao, A review on welding of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel, J. Manuf. Sci. Prod., 14(2014), No. 1, p. 1.

  4. [4]

    J.C. Lippold and D.J. Kotecki, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005, p. 141.

  5. [5]

    D.L. Olson, Prediction of austenitic weld metal microstructure and properties, Weld. Res. Suppl., 64(1985), No. 10, p. 281.

  6. [6]

    D.C. Sicupira, R.C. Junior, A.Q. Bracarense, G.S. Frankel, and V. de Freitas Cunha Lins, Cyclic polarization study of thick welded joints of lean duplex stainless steel for application in biodiesel industry, Mater. Res., 20(2017), No. 1, p. 161.

  7. [7]

    E. Bettini, U. Kivisäkk, C. Leygraf, and J. Pan, Study of corrosion behavior of a 2507 super duplex stainless steel: Influence of quenched-in and isothermal nitrides, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 9(2014), No. 1, p. 61.

  8. [8]

    G. Magudeeswaran, S.R. Nair, L. Sundar, and N. Harikannan, Optimization of process parameters of the activated tungsten inert gas welding for aspect ratio of UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel welds, Def. Technol., 10(2014), No. 3, p. 251.

  9. [10]

    M. Shojaati and B. Beidokhti, Characterization of AISI 304/AISI 409 stainless steel joints using different filler materials, Constr. Build. Mater., 147(2017), p. 608.

  10. [10]

    S.H. Wang, P.K. Chiu, J.R. Yang, and J. Fang, Gamma (γ) phase transformation in pulsed GTAW weld metal of duplex stainless steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 420(2006), No. 1–2, p. 26.

  11. [11]

    N. Sathirachinda, R. Pettersson, S. Wessman, U. Kivisäkk, and J.S. Pan, Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy study of chromium nitrides in 2507 super duplex stainless steel—Implications and limitations, Electrochim. Acta, 56(2011), No. 4, p. 1792.

  12. [12]

    H.S. Wang, Effect of welding variables on cooling rate and pitting corrosion resistance in super duplex stainless weldments, Mater. Trans., 46(2005), No. 3, p. 593.

  13. [13]

    F. Hejripour and D.K. Aidun, Consumable selection for arc welding between Stainless Steel 410 and Inconel 718, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 245(2017), p. 287.

  14. [14]

    Z.Q. Zhang, H.Y. Jing, L.Y. Xu, Y.D. Han, Z.Q. Gao, L. Zhao, and J.L. Zhang, Microstructural characterization and electron backscatter diffraction analysis across the welded interface of duplex stainless steel, Appl. Surf. Sci., 413(2017), p. 327.

  15. [15]

    H.M. Ezuber, A. El-Houd, and F. El-Shawesh, Effects of sigma phase precipitation on seawater pitting of duplex stainless steel, Desalination, 207(2007), No. 1–3, p. 268.

  16. [16]

    Y.T. Shin, H.S. Shin, and H.W. Lee, Effects of heat input on pitting corrosion in super duplex stainless steel weld metals, Met. Mater. Int., 18(2012), No. 6, p. 1037.

  17. [17]

    J. Verma and R.V. Taiwade, Effect of welding processes and conditions on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel weldments—A review, J. Manuf. Process., 25(2017), p. 134.

  18. [18]

    L.D. Chen, H. Tan, Z.Y. Wang, J. Li, and Y.M. Jiang, Influence of cooling rate on microstructure evolution and pitting corrosion resistance in the simulated heat-affected zone of 2304 duplex stainless steels, Corros. Sci., 58(2012), p. 168.

  19. [19]

    Z.Q. Zhang, H.Y. Jing, L.Y. Xu, Y.D. Han, and L. Zhao, The influence of microstructural evolution on selective corrosion in duplex stainless steel flux-cored arc welded joints, Corros. Sci., 120(2017), p. 194.

  20. [20]

    F.Y. Yan, W. Xiong, and E.J. Faierson, Grain structure control of additively manufactured metallic materials, Materials, 10(2017), No. 11, p. 1260.

  21. [21]

    H. Sieurin and R. Sandstrom, Sigma phase precipitation in duplex stainless steel 2205, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 444(2007), No. 1–2, p. 271.

  22. [22]

    I. Alvarez-Armas, Duplex stainless steels: Brief history and Ssome recent alloys, Recent Patents Mech. Eng., 1(2008), p. 51.

  23. [23]

    T. Saeid, A. Abdollah-zadeh, H. Assadi, and F.M. Ghaini, Effect of friction stir welding speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a duplex stainless steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 496(2008), No. 1–2, p. 262.

  24. [24]

    A.J. Ramirez, J.C. Lippold, and S.D. Brandi, The relationship between chromium nitride and secondary austenite precipitation in duplex stainless steels, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 34(2003), No. 8, p. 1575.

  25. [25]

    K.D. Hao, C. Zhang, X.Y. Zeng, and M. Gao, Effect of heat input on weld microstructure and toughness of laser-arc hybrid welding of martensitic stainless steel, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 245(2017), p. 7.

  26. [26]

    J.L. Hau and A. Seijas, Sigma phase embrittlement of stainless steel in FCC service, [in] Corrosion NACExpo, 2006, art. No. 06578.

  27. [27]

    R. Ghasemi, B. Beidokhti, and M. Fazel-Najafabadi, Effect of delta ferrite on the mechanical properties of dissimilar ferritic-austenitic stainless steel welds, Arch. Metall. Mater., 63(2018), No. 1, p. 437.

Download references

Acknowledgement

The assistance of Isaac Chang from Brunel University London is gratefully acknowledged.

Author information

Correspondence to B. Beidokhti.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Taheri, A., Beidokhti, B., Shayegh Boroujeny, B. et al. Characterizations of dissimilar S32205/316L welds using austenitic, super-austenitic and super-duplex filler metals. Int J Miner Metall Mater 27, 119–127 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-019-1925-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • stainless steel
  • mechanical properties
  • microstructure
  • welding