Gas-liquid mass transfer and flow phenomena in a peirce-smith converter: A numerical model study

  • Hong-liang Zhao
  • Xing Zhao
  • Liang-zhao Mu
  • Li-feng ZhangEmail author
  • Li-qiang Yang


A numerical model was established to simulate the flow field in a Peirce-Smith converter bath, which is extensively adopted in copper making. The mean phase and velocity distribution, circular area, and mean wall shear stress were calculated to determine the optimal operation parameter of the converter. The results showed that the slag phase gathered substantially in the dead zone. The circular flow was promoted by increasing the gas flow rate, Q, and decreasing the nozzle height, h. However, these operations significantly aggravate the wall shear stress. Reducing the nozzle diameter, d, increases the injection velocity, which may accelerate the flow field. However, when the nozzle diameter has an interval design, the bubble behaviors cannot be combined, thus, weakening the injection efficiency. Considering the bal-ance between the circular flow and wall shear stress in this model, the optimal operation parameters were Q = 30000–35000 m3/h, h = 425–525 mm, and d = 40 & 50 mm.


phase distribution velocity distribution wall shear stress Peirce-Smith converter 


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This work was financially supported by the Guangxi In-novation-Driven Development Project (No. AA18242042-1) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51504018).


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Copyright information

© University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong-liang Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xing Zhao
    • 1
  • Liang-zhao Mu
    • 1
  • Li-feng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Li-qiang Yang
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Metallurgical and Ecological EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Recycling and Extraction of MetalBeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Representative Office of Chambishi Copper Smelter Ltd.BeijingChina

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