Complete stabilization of severely As-contaminated soil by a simple H2O2 pre-oxidation method combined with non-toxic TMT-15 and FeCl3·6H2O

  • Chang-sheng Yue
  • Ben Peng
  • Wei Tian
  • Guang-hua Lu
  • Gui-bo Qiu
  • Mei ZhangEmail author


The stabilization of severely As-polluted soil has been a challenge, especially for the extremely toxic As(III) contaminants. In this study, soil with a high As concentration (26084 mg/kg) was availably stabilized by a H2O2 pre-oxidation assisted TMT-15 (Na3S3C3N3 solution with a mass fraction of 15%) and FeCl3·6H2O stabilization method. The results showed that the combination of the two stabilizers (i.e., TMT-15 and FeCl3·6H2O) presented a better stabilization behavior than either stabilizer used individually. The use of the H2O2 pre-oxidation assisted TMT-15 and FeCl3·6H2O stabilization approach not only converted the As(III) to As(V) but also reduced the toxic leaching concentration of As to 1.61 mg/L, which is a safe level, when the additions of TMT-15 and FeCl3·6H2O were 2 mL and 0.20 g, respectively. Thus, using only a simple H2O2 pre-oxidation to combine clean stabilization with non-toxic stabilizers TMT-15 and FeCl3·6H2O could render the severely As-contaminated soil safe for disposal in a landfill.


severely As-contaminated soil non-toxic stabilizers combining stabilization pre-oxidation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFC1802400), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51604310), the Major Project of Central Research Institute of Building and Construction (No. XAC2017Ky03), and the Opening Foundation of State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection of Iron and Steel Industry (No. 2016YZC02).


  1. [1]
    M.R. Karagas, T.A. Stukel, and T.D. Tosteson, Assessment of cancer risk and environmental levels of arsenic in New Hampshire, Int. J. Hyg. Envir. Health, 205(2002), No. 1–2, p. 86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    R.J. Cheng, H.W. Ni, H. Zhang, X.K. Zhang, and S.C. Bai, Mechanism research on arsenic removal from arsenopyrite ore during a sintering process, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 24(2017), No. 4, p. 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. Mahimairaja, N.S. Bolan, D.C. Adriano, and B. Robinson, Arsenic contamination and its risk management in complex environmental settings, Adv. Agron., 86(2005), p 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    E. Smith, R. Naidu, and A.M. Alston, Arsenic in the soil environment: A review, Adv. Agron., 64(1998), p. 150.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    P.C. Ke, Z.H. Liu, and L. Li, Synthesis, characterization, and property test of crystalline polyferric sulfate adsorbent used in treatment of contaminated water with a high As(III) content, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 25(2018), No. 10, p. 1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Y. Arai, A. Lanzirotti, S. Sutton, J.A. Davis, and D.L. Sparks, Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37(2003), No. 18, p. 4083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    O. Muñoz, D. Vélez, M.L. Cervera, and R. Montoro, Rapid and quantitative release, separation and determination of inorganic arsenic [As(III)+As(V)] in seafood products by microwave-assisted distillation and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 14(1999), No. 10, p. 1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    P. Miretzky and A.F. Cirelli, Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by iron amendments: A review, Crit. Rev. Env. Sci. Technol., 40(2010), No. 2, p. 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Q.Z. Feng, Z.Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, L.Y. Liu, Z.J. Zhang, and C.Z. Chen, Adsorption and desorption characteristics of arsenic on soils: kinetics, equilibrium, and effect of Fe(OH)3 colloid, H2SiO3 colloid and phosphate, Procedia Environ. Sci., 18(2013), p. 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Y.L. Lin, B. Wu, P. Ning, G.F. Qu, J.Y. Li, X.Q. Wang, and R.S. Xie, Stabilization of arsenic in waste slag using FeCl2 or FeCl3 stabilizer, RSC Adv., 7(2017), No. 87, p. 54956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    C. Yuan and T.S. Chiang, Enhancement of electrokinetic remediation of arsenic spiked soil by chemical reagents, J. Hazard. Mater., 152(2008), No. 1, p. 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Y.R. Li, J. Wang, X.J. Peng, F. Ni, and Z.K. Luan, Evaluation of arsenic immobilization in red mud by CO2 or waste acid acidification combined ferrous (Fe2+) treatment, J. Hazard. Mater., 199–200(2012), p. 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    A. Xenidis, C. Stouraiti, and N. Papassiopi, Stabilization of Pb and As in soils by applying combined treatment with phosphates and ferrous iron, J. Hazard. Mater., 177(2010), No. 1, p. 929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    H. Seidel, K.G. Rörsch, K. Amstätter, and J. Mattusch, Immobilization of arsenic in a tailings material by ferrous iron treatment, Water Res., 39(2005), No. 17, p. 4073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    J.Y. Kim, A.P. Davis, and K.W. Kim, Stabilization of available arsenic in highly contaminated mine tailings using iron, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37(2003), No. 1, p. 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    E.Y. Yazici, E. Yilmaz, F. Ahlatci, O. Celep, and H. Deveci, Recovery of silver from cyanide leach solutions by precipitation using Trimercapto-s-triazine (TMT), Hydrometallurgy, 174(2017), p. 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    K.R. Henke, D. Robertson, M.K. Krepps, and D.A. Atwood, Chemistry and stability of precipitates from aqueous solutions of 2,4,6-trimercaptotriazine, trisodium salt, nonahydrate (TMT-55) and mercury (II) chloride, Water Res., 34(2000), No. 11, p. 3005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    K.R. Henke, A.R. Hutchison, M.K. Krepps, S. Parkin, and D.A. Atwood, Chemistry of 2,4,6-trimercapto-1,3,5-triazine (TMT): acid dissociation constants and group 2 complexes, Inorg. Chem., 40(2001), No. 17, p. 4443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Method 1311: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, third ed., US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1992.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    K. Petkov, V. Krastev, and T. Marinova, XPS study of amorphous As2S3 films deposited onto chromium layers, Surf. Interface Anal., 22(1994), No. 1–12, p. 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    M. Soma, A. Tanaka, H. Seyama, and K. Satake, Characterization of arsenic in lake sediments by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58(1994), No. 12, p. 2743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    C.D.B. Amaral, A.N. Jóaquim, and A.R.A. Nogueira, Sample preparation for arsenic speciation in terrestrial plants—a review, Talanta, 115(2013), p. 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    V.M. Norwood III and J.J. Kohler, Organic reagents for removing heavy metals from a 10-34-0 (N-P2O5-K2O) grade fertilizer solution and wet-process phosphoric acid, Fert. Res., 26(1990), No. 1–3, p. 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    E. Krause and V.A. Ettel, Solubilities and stabilities of ferric arsenate compounds, Hydrometallurgy, 22(1989), No. 3, p. 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    G.M. Ayoub, B. Koopman, G. Bitton, and K. Riedesel, Heavy metal detoxification by trimercapto-s-triazine (TMT) as evaluated by a bacterial enzyme assay, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 14(1995), No. 2, p. 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Y.Q. Ma, Y.W. Qin, B.H. Zheng, L. Zhang, and Y.M. Zhao, Arsenic release from the abiotic oxidation of arsenopyrite under the impact of waterborne H2O2: a SEM and XPS study, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23(2016), No. 2, p. 1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    J.M. Epp and J.G. Dillard, Effect of ion bombardment on the chemical reactivity of gallium arsenide (100), Chem. Mater., 1(1989), No. 3, p. 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    M.C. Bluteau, L. Becze, and G.P. Demopoulos, The dissolution of scorodite in gypsum-saturated waters: Evidence of Ca–Fe–AsO4 mineral formation and its impact on arsenic retention, Hydrometallurgy, 97(2009), No. 3, p. 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang-sheng Yue
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ben Peng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei Tian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guang-hua Lu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gui-bo Qiu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mei Zhang
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Central Research Institute of Building and Construction Co., Ltd.Metallurgical Corporation of China Group (MCC Group)BeijingChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Research Center for Industrial Environmental ProtectionBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Metallurgical and Ecological EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations