Reaction kinetics modeling for lithium and cobalt recovery from spent lithium-ion batteries using acetic acid

  • Hendrik Setiawan
  • Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrus
  • Indra PerdanaEmail author


Lithium and cobalt recovery from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is a major focus because of their increased production and usage. The conventional method for recycling spent LIBs using inorganic acids produces harmful byproducts. In this work, the leaching agent was substituted with a less expensive and more environmentally friendly alternative—acetic acid—and a mathematical model was developed to describe the kinetics of the recovery process. The variables used were the pH value, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and the solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio. The mathematical model used was the shrinking core model, which was modified to accommodate an equilibrium reaction. The experimental results show that the rate of recovery of Li and Co over time was only affected by temperature. The leaching behaviors of Li and Co were found to oppose each other. An increase in temperature resulted in increased recovery of Li but decreased recovery of Co because of the product-favoring endothermic reaction of Li and the reactant-favoring exothermic reaction of Co. The product of Li has a lower entropy value than the reactant as a free-moving ion, whereas the product of Co leaching has a higher entropy value as a stiff crystal complex. Thus, temperature conditioning is a pivotal factor in the leaching of spent LIBs.


spent libs lithium cobalt kinetics modeling recovery equilibrium 


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This research was financially supported by Universitas Gadjah Mada partly through LPDP’s Molina Project fiscal year 2015 and partly by University Grant for Applied Research (PTUPT) 2018. Authors would also like to acknowledge the support given by the Department of Earth Resource, Kyushu University for the research facilities provided during joint research in Sakura Science Project under Japan Science and Technology Agency.


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Copyright information

© University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hendrik Setiawan
    • 1
  • Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrus
    • 1
  • Indra Perdana
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Sustainable Mineral Processing Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

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