Advertisement

Effect of molasses binder on the physical and mechanical properties of iron ore pellets

  • Anand Babu Kotta
  • Anshuman Patra
  • Mithilesh Kumar
  • Swapan Kumar KarakEmail author
Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Molasses was used as an alternative binder to the bentonite binder. The change in moisture absorption by pellets prepared with different iron ores and different molasses contents were investigated. Iron ore properties exerted the major effect on pellet behavior and final pellet quality. The absorbed moisture content of pellets prepared without binder, bentonite-added pellets, and molasses-added pellets were in the range of 7.72%–9.95%, 9.62%–10.84%, and 6.14%−6.69%, respectively. The wet pellet compressive strength of molasses-added pellets (43–230 N/pellet) was superior to that of bentonite-added pellets (9.47–11.92 N/pellet). The compressive strength of dried molasses-modified pellets increased to 222–394 N/pellet, which is currently the highest value achieved for dried pellets.

Keywords

iron ore molasses binder moisture absorption pellet strength physical and mechanical properties 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    A.K. Mandal, A. Sarkar, and O.P. Sinha, Utilization of lime fines as an effective binder as well as fluxing agent for making fluxed iron ore pellets, J. Inst. Eng. (India) Series D, 97(2016), No. 1, p. 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    A.K. Mukherjee, J.S. Thella, D. Makhija, A.S. Patra, M. Manna, and T.K. Ghosh, Process to recover iron values from high-alumina indian iron ore slime?a bench-scale study, Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. Rev., 36(2015), No. 1, p. 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S.S. Lu, Z.T. Yuan, J.T. Liu, J.W. Lu, L.X. Li, and H.Q. Hao, Binding effects and mechanisms of the carboxymethyl starch modified with nano-CaCO3 in magnetite concentrate pellets, Powder Technol., 301(2016), p. 1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    T. Tsukerman, C. Duchesne, and D. Hodouin, On the drying rates of individual iron oxide pellets, Int. J. Miner. Process., 83(2007), No. 3–4, p. 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    D. Bandyopadhyay, N. Chakraborti, and A. Ghosh, A study on the kinetics of iron oxide reduction by solid carbon, Steel Res. Int., 64(1993), No. 7, p. 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    H.X. Mao, R.D. Zhang, X.W. Lv, C.G. Bai, and X.B. Huang, Effect of surface properties of iron ores on their granulation behavior, ISIJ Int., 53(2013), No. 9, p. 1491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    X.W. Lv, C.G. Bai, G.B. Qiu, S.F. Zhang, and M.L. Hu, Moisture capacity: definition, measurement, and application in determining the optimal water content in granulating, ISIJ Int., 50(2010), No. 5, p. 695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    O. Sivrikaya and A.I. Arol, Pelletization of magnetite ore with colemanite added organic binders, Powder Technol., 210(2011), No. 1, p. 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    L.A. Haas, R.K. Zahl, and J.A. Aldinger, Effectiveness of Organic Binders for Iron Ore Pelletization, Bureau of Mines, United States, 1989, p. 21.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    T.C. Eisele and S.K. Kawatra, A review of binders in iron ore pelletization, Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. Rev., 24(2003), No. 1, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    O. Sivrikaya and A.I. Arol, The bonding/strengthening mechanism of colemanite added organic binders in iron ore pelletization, Int. J. Miner. Process., 110–111(2012), p. 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    O. Sivrikaya, A.I. Arol, T. Eisele, and S.K. Kawatra, The effect of calcined colemanite addition on the mechanical strength of magnetite pellets produced with organic binders, Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. Rev., 34(2013), No. 4, p. 210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    J.E.D. McDonald and S.K. Kawatra, Agglomeration of hematite concentrate by starches, Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. Rev., 38(2017), No. 1, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    J.A. Halt and S.K. Kawatra, Can modified starch be used as a binder for iron ore pellets?, Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. Rev., 38(2017), No. 2, p. 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    L.A. Haas, J.A. Aldinger, and J.C. Nigro, Utilization of Papermill Sludges as Binders for Iron Ore Concentrate, US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Washington DC, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    O. Sivrikaya and A.I. Arol, Alternative binders to bentonite for iron ore pelletizing: part II: Effects on metallurgical and chemical properties, HOLOS, 3(2014), p. 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    A. Ammasi and J. Pal, Replacement of bentonite in hematite ore pelletisation using a combination of sodium lignosulphonate and copper smelting slag, Ironmaking Steelmaking, 43(2016), No. 3, p. 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    X.H. Fan, G.M. Yang, X.L. Chen, X.N. He, X.X. Huang, and L. Gao, Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose on the drying dynamics and thermal cracking performance of iron ore green pellets, Powder Technol., 267(2014), p. 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    A.Z.M. Abouzeid and A.A. Seddik, Effect of iron ore properties on its balling behaviour, Powder Technol., 29(1981), No. 2, p. 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    P.J.T. Mills, J.P.K. Seville, P.C. Knight, and M.J. Adams, The effect of binder viscosity on particle agglomeration in a low shear mixer/agglomerator, Powder Technol., 113(2000), No. 1–2, p. 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    S.M. Iveson, J.D. Litster, and B.J. Ennis, Fundamental studies of granule consolidation Part 1: Effects of binder content and binder viscosity, Powder Technol., 88(1996), No. 1, p. 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    H.G. Kristensen, P. Holm, and T. Schaefer, Mechanical properties of moist agglomerates in relation to granulation mechanisms part I. Deformability of moist, densified agglomerates, Powder Technol., 44(1985), No. 3, p. 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    S.M. Iveson and J.D. Litster, Liquid-bound granule impact deformation and coefficient of restitution, Powder Technol., 99(1998), No. 3, p. 234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    S.M. Iveson, P.A.L. Wauters, S. Forrest, J.D. Litster, G.M.H. Meesters, and B. Scarlett, Growth regime map for liquid-bound granules: Further development and experimental validation, Powder Technol., 117(2011), No. 1–2, p. 83.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    S.M. Iveson and J.D. Litster, Fundamental studies of granule consolidation part 2: Quantifying the effects of particle and binder properties, Powder Technol., 99(1998), No. 3, p. 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    ISO 4700:2015, Iron ore pellets for blast furnace and direct reduction feedstocks—Determination of the crushing strength, Bureau of Indian Standards, 2015, p. 1Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    S.M. Iveson, K.F. Rutherford, and S.R. Iggs, Liquid penetration rate into submerged porous particles: Theory, experimental validation and implications for iron ore granulation and sintering, Trans. Inst. Min. Metall. Sect. C, 110(2001), No. 3, p. 133.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    S.M. Iveson, J.D. Litster, K. Hapgood, and B.J. Ennis, Nucleation, growth and breakage phenomena in agitated wet granulation processes: A review, Powder Technol., 117(2001), No. 1–2, p. 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    S.L. Wu, Z.G. Que, X.B. Zhai, and K.L. Li, Effect of characteristics of fine iron ores on the granulation behavior of concentrate in sintering granulation process, Metall. Res. Technol., 115(2018), No. 202, p. 1.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    O.A. Mohamed, M.E.H. Shalabi, N.A. El-Hussiny, M.H. Khedr, and F. Mostafa, The role of normal and activated bentonite on the pelletization of barite iron ore concentrate and the quality of pellets, Powder Technol., 130(2003), No. 1–3, p. 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    S.P.E. Forsmo, A.J. Apelqvist, B.M.T. Björkman, and P.O. Samskog, Binding mechanisms in wet iron ore green pellets with a bentonite binder, Powder Technol., 169(2006), No. 3, p. 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    A. Gül, A.A. Sirkeci, F. Boylu, G. Güldan, and F. Burat, Improvement of mechanical strength of iron ore pellets using raw and activated bentionites as binders, Physicochem. Prob. Miner. Process., 51(2014), No. 1, p. 23.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anand Babu Kotta
    • 1
  • Anshuman Patra
    • 1
  • Mithilesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Swapan Kumar Karak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia

Personalised recommendations