Advertisement

Thermodynamics and phase transformations in the recovery of zinc from willemite

  • Feng Chen
  • Wei Chen
  • Yu-feng Guo
  • Shuai Wang
  • Fu-qiang Zheng
  • Tao Jiang
  • Ze-qiang Xie
  • Ling-zhi Yang
Article
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Willemite is a common component of zinc and lead metallurgical slags that, in the absence of effective utilization methods, cause serious environmental problems. To solve this problem and increase zinc recovery, we proposed a novel extraction method of zinc from willemite by calcified roasting followed by leaching in NH4Cl–NH3·H2O solution. The thermodynamics and phase conversion of Zn2SiO4 to zinc oxide (ZnO) during calcified roasting with CaO were investigated. The mechanism of mineralogical phase conversion and the effects of the CaO-to-Zn2SiO4 mole ratio (n(CaO)/n(Zn2SiO4)), roasting temperature, and the roasting time on zinc-bearing phase conversion were experimentally investigated. The results show that Zn2SiO4 was first converted to Ca2ZnSi2O7 and then to ZnO. The critical step in extracting zinc from willemite is the conversion of Zn2SiO4 to ZnO. The zinc percent leached in the ammonia leaching system rapidly increased because of the gradual complete phase conversion from willemite to ZnO via the calcified roasting process.

Keywords

willemite zinc residues calcified-roasting thermodynamics mineralogical phase conversion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by National Program on Key Basic Research Project of China (973 Program, No. 2014CB643403) and the Postdoctoral Foundation of Central South University.

References

  1. [1]
    J. Wang, Q. Huang, T. Li, B. Xin, S. Chen, X. Guo, C. Liu, and Y. Li, Bioleaching mechanism of Zn, Pb, In, Ag, Cd and As from Pb/Zn smelting slag by autotrophic bacteria, J. Environ. Manage., 159(2015), p. 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    E. Abkhoshk, E. Jorjani, M.S. Al–Harahsheh, F. Rashchi, and M. Naazeri, Review of the hydrometallurgical processing of non–sulfide zinc ores, Hydrometallurgy, 149(2014), p. 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. Sethurajan, D. Huguenot, R. Jain, P.N.L. Lens, H.A. Horn, L.H.A. Figueiredo, and E.D. van Hullebusch, Leaching and selective zinc recovery from acidic leachates of zinc metallurgical leach residues, J. Hazard. Mater., 324(2017), p. 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    N.H. Yin, Y. Sivry, F. Guyot, P.N.L. Lens, and E.D. van Hullebusch, Evaluation on chemical stability of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags, J. Environ. Manage., 180(2016), p. 310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    H.P. Hu, Q.F. Deng, C. Li, Y. Xie, Z.Q. Dong, and W. Zhang, The recovery of Zn and Pb and the manufacture of lightweight bricks from zinc smelting slag and clay, J. Hazard. Mater., 271(2014), p. 220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    L.R.P.D. Lima and L.A. Bernardez, Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil, J. Hazard. Mater., 189(2011), No. 3, p. 692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. Onisei, Y. Pontikes, T. van Gerven, G.N. Angelopoulos, T. Velea, V. Predica, and P. Moldovan, Synthesis of inorganic polymers using fly ash and primary lead slag, J. Hazard. Mater., 205–206 (2012), p. 101.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    H.S. Altundogan, M. Erdem, R. Orhan, A. Ozer and F. Tumen, Heavy metal pollution potential of zinc leach residues discarded in cinkur plant, Turk. J. Eng. Environ. Sci., 22(1998), p. 167.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Y.C. Zhao and R. Stanforth, Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium, J. Hazard. Mater., 80(2000), No. 1–3, p. 223.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    M. Li, B. Peng, L.Y. Chai, N. Peng, H. Yan, and D.K. Hou, Recovery of iron from zinc leaching residue by selective reduction roasting with carbon, J. Hazard. Mater., 237 (2012), p. 323.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    L. Xiong, Study of the Preparation of High Pure Zinc from Zinc Oxides by Vacuum Carbothermic Reduction [Dissertation], Central South Universtiy, Changsha, 2011.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    T. Miki, R. Chairaksa–Fujimoto, K. Maruyama, and T. Nagasaka, Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from CaO treated EAF dust in ammonium chloride solution, J. Hazard. Mater., 302(2016), p. 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    L.Z. Xiong, Q.Y. Chen, Z.L. Yin, P.M. Zhang, Z.Y. Ding, and Z.X. Liu, Preparation of metal zinc from hemimorphite by vacuum carbothermic reduction with CaF2 as catalyst, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 22(2012), No. 3, p. 694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Y. Sueoka and M. Sakakibara, Primary phases and natural weathering of smelting slag at an abandoned mine site in southwest Japan, Minerals, 3(2013), No. 4, p. 412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    R. Chairaksa–Fujimoto, K. Maruyama, T. Miki, and T. Nagasaka, The selective alkaline leaching of zinc oxide from electric arc furnace dust pre–treated with calcium oxide, Hydrometallurgy, 159(2016), p. 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    S.M. He, J.K. Wang, and J.F. Yan, Pressure leaching of synthetic zinc silicate in sulfuric acid medium, Hydrometallurgy, 108(2011), No. 3–4, p. 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    F.M.F. Santos, P.S. Pina, R. Porcaro, V.A. Oliveira, C.A. Silva, and V.A. Leão, The kinetics of zinc silicate leaching in sodium hydroxide, Hydrometallurgy, 102(2010), No. 1–4, p. 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Z.Y. Liu, Z.H. Liu, Q.H. Li, Z.Y. Cao, and T.Z. Yang, Dissolution behavior of willemite in the (NH4)2SO4−NH3−H2O system, Hydrometallurgy, 125(2012), p. 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Z.Y. Liu, Z.H. Liu, Q.H. Li, T.Z. Yang, and X. Zhang, Leaching of hemimorphite in NH3−(NH4)2SO4−H2O system and its mechanism, Hydrometallurgy, 125(2012), p. 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    W. Chen, Y.F. Guo, F. Chen, T. Jiang, and X.D. Liu, The extraction of zinc from willemite by calcified–roasting and ammonia–leaching process based on phase reconstruction, [in] the 7th International Symposium on High–Temperature Metallurgical Processing, Nashville, 2016, p. 109.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    C.W. Bale, E. Bélisle, P. Chartrand, S.A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, I.H. Jung, Y.B. Kang, J. Melançon, A.D. Pelton, C. Robelin, and S. Petersen, FactSage thermochemical software and databases–recent developments, Calphad, 33(2009), No. 2, p. 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feng Chen
    • 1
  • Wei Chen
    • 1
  • Yu-feng Guo
    • 1
  • Shuai Wang
    • 1
  • Fu-qiang Zheng
    • 1
  • Tao Jiang
    • 1
  • Ze-qiang Xie
    • 1
  • Ling-zhi Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Minerals Processing and BioengineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations