Advertisement

Sarcopenia is Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • G. Cabett Cipolli
  • M. Sanches Yassuda
  • I. AprahamianEmail author
Article

Abstract

Background and Objectives

There is little evidence in the literature about the possible relationship between sarcopenia and cognition in older adults. Our objective was to investigate the association between cognitive impairment and sarcopenia in older adults living in the community through a systematic review of published studies.

Research Design and Methods

We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis through Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo and Web of Science databases between March 1, 2001 and December 18, 2018. We included longitudinal and cross-sectional studies that evaluated sarcopenia and cognition as a primary objective.

Results

Of the 274 studies identified by the systematic review, 10 were included in qualitative analysis (total of 9,703 participants), and 6 were eligible for the meta-analysis (n = 7,045). Mean prevalence of sarcopenia was 10.5%. Cognitive impairment was observed in 269 participants with sarcopenia (40%), compared with 1,616 in non-sarcopenic participants (25.3%). Sarcopenia was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (pooled OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.26–4.92; p = 0.008). Heterogeneity across the studies was high and significant (I2 = 84%).

Discussion and Implications

Our analyzes confirmed that sarcopenic older adults presented a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment. Sarcopenia may represent a risk factor for cognitive decline, but longitudinal studies are needed to explore causality.

Key words

Cognitive impairment cognition dementia sarcopenia older adults 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Prof. Aprahamian receives National public grant level 2 from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications, Brazil).

References

  1. 1.
    Cesari M, Rolland Y, Van Kan GA, Bandinelli S, Vellas B, Ferrucci L. Sarcopenia-related parameters and incident disability in older persons: Results from the “Invecchiare in Chianti” study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015; 70(4):457–63. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glu181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing. 2010; 39(4):412–23. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arango-Lopera VE, Arroyo P, Gutiérrez-Robledo LM, Pérez-Zepeda MU, Cesari M. Mortality as an adverse outcome of sarcopenia. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013; 17(3): 259–262. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-012-0434-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Landi F, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Liperoti R, Russo A, Giovannini S, Tosato M, et al. Sarcopenia and mortality risk in frail olderpersons aged 80 years and older: Results from iLSIRENTE study. Age Ageing. 2013; 42(2):203–9. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afs194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Janssen I, Shepard ÃDS, Katzmarzyk PT, Roubenoff R, Mhs Ã. The Healthcare Costs of Sarcopenia in the United States. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004; 52(1):80–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52014.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dent E, Morley JE, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, et al. International Clinical Practice Guidelines for Sarcopenia (ICFSR): Screening, diagnosis and management. J Nutr Health Aging 2018 (In press).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J, Boirie Y, Bruyère O, Cederholm T, et al. Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing. 2019; 48(1):16–31. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afy169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Diz JBM, Leopoldino AAO, Moreira B de S, Henschke N, Dias RC, Pereira LSM, et al. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older Brazilians: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017; 17(1):5–16. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12720 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang K-V, Hsu T-H, Wu W-T, Huang K-C, Han D-S. Association Between Sarcopenia and Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016; 17(12):1164.e7–1164.e15. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.09.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alexandre T da S, Duarte YA de O, Santos JLF, Wong R, Lebrão ML. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia among elderly in Brazil: findings from the SABE study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014; 18(3):284–90. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-013-0413-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sugimoto T, Ono R, Murata S, Saji N, Matsui Y, Niida S, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in elderly subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016; 13(6):718–26. doi:  https://doi.org/10.2174/1567205013666160211124828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Samper-Ternent R, Reyes-Ortiz C, Ottenbacher KJ, Cano CA. Frailty and sarcopenia in Bogotá: results from the SABE Bogotá Study. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2017; 29(2):265–272. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-016-0561-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Kan GA, Cesari M, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Dupuy C, Nourhashémi F, Schott AM, et al. Sarcopenia and cognitive impairment in elderly women: Results from the EPIDOS cohort. Age Ageing. 2013; 42(2):196–202. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afs173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Papachristou E, Ramsay SE, Lennon LT, Papacosta O, Iliffe S, Whincup PH, et al. The relationships between body composition characteristics and cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of older British men. BMC Geriatr. 2015; 15:172. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-015-0169-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nishiguchi S, Yamada M, Fukutani N, Adachi D, Tashiro Y, Hotta T, et al. Differential association of frailty with cognitive decline and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015; 16(2):120–4. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2014.07.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nishiguchi S, Yamada M, Shirooka H, Nozaki Y, Fukutani N, Tashiro Y, et al. Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Deterioration in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A 1-Year Prospective Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016; 17(4):372.e5–8. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2015.12.096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gao L, Jiang J, Yang M, Hao Q, Luo L, Dong B. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Factors in Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly: Comparison Between Rural and Urban Areas. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015; 16(11):1003.e1–6. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2015.07.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ogawa Y, Kaneko Y, Sato T, Shimizu S, Kanetaka H, Hanyu H. Sarcopenia and Muscle Functions at Various Stages of Alzheimer Disease. Front Neurol. 2018; 9: 710. doi:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang C-Y, Hwang A-C, Liu L-K, Lee W-J, Chen L-Y, Peng L-N, et al. Association of Dynapenia, Sarcopenia, and Cognitive Impairment Among Community-Dwelling Older Taiwanese. Rejuvenation Res. 2016; 19(1):71–8. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1089/rej.2015.1710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee I, Cho J, Hong H, Jin Y, Kim D, Kang H. Sarcopenia Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment and Depression in Elderly Korean Women. Iran J Public Health. 2018; 47(3): 327–334.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Petersson S, Philippou E. The effects of Mediterranean Diet on cognitive function and dementia: Systematic review of the evidence. Adv Nutr. 2016; 7(5):889–904. doi:  https://doi.org/10.3945/an.116.012138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nieuwenhuizen WF, Weenen H, Rigby P, Hetherington MM. Older adults and patients in need of nutritional support: Review of current treatment options and factors influencing nutritional intake. Clin Nutr. 2010; 29(2):160–9. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2009.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ishii H, Makizako H, Doi T, Tsutsumimoto K, Shimada H. Associations of Skeletal Muscle Mass, Lower-Extremity Functioning, and Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older People in Japan. J Nutr Health Aging (2019) 23: 35. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-018-1110-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brach JS, FitzGerald S, Newman AB, Kelsey S, Kuller L, VanSwearingen JM, et al. Physical Activity and Functional Status in Community-Dwelling Older Women. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163(21):2565–71. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.21.2565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alfaro-Acha A, Al Snih S, Raji MA, Markides KS, Ottenbacher KJ. Does 8-foot walk time predict cognitive decline in older Mexicans Americans? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007; 55(2):245–51. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01039.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alfaro-Acha A, Al Snih S, Raji MA, Kuo Y-F, Professor A, Markides KS, et al. Handgrip Strength and Cognitive Decline in Older Mexican Americans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006; 61(8):859–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kang H, Schuman EM. Long-Lasting. Neurotrophin-Induced Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission in the Adult Hippocampus. Science. 1995; 267(5204):1658–62. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7886457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dam PS Van, Aleman A, Vries WR De, Deijen JB, Veen EA Van Der, Haan F De, et al. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cognitive function in adults. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2000; 10 Suppl B:S69–73. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1096-6374(00)80013-1 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Erickson KI, Voss MW, Shaurya R, Basak C, Szabo A. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(7):3017–22. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015950108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ardawi MSM, Rouzi AA, Qari MH. Physical activity in relation to serum sclerostin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(10):3691–9. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-3361 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morley JE. Editorial: Bidirectional Communication Between Brain and Muscle. J Nutr Health Aging. 2018; 22(10):1144–1145. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-018-1141-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag International SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Cabett Cipolli
    • 1
  • M. Sanches Yassuda
    • 1
  • I. Aprahamian
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of ArtsSciences and Humanities of the University of São Paulo, SPSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Geriatrics Division, Department of Internal MedicineFaculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, SPJundiaíBrazil
  3. 3.Group of Investigation on Multimorbidity and Mental Health in Aging (GIMMA), Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine of JundiaíJundiaíBrazil

Personalised recommendations