Exercise and/or Dietary Varieties and Incidence of Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Women: A 2-Year Cohort Study
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Exercise and dietary habits rich in variety may reduce the risk of frailty incident, but such association remains unexamined. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between exercise and/or dietary varieties and incidence of frailty in older women.
A 2-year population-based prospective cohort study.
Setting and participants
Six hundred and four community-dwelling older Japanese women aged ≥75 years with non-frailty at baseline survey.
Frailty was assessed using Fried’s frailty criteria composed of shrinking, weakness, slowness, low activity, and exhaustion at both baseline and follow-up surveys. Frailty incident was defined as the presence of =3 components at the follow-up survey. At baseline, information about exercise and dietary habits were obtained from all participants through a face-to-face interview. Participants were grouped into two categories, high (=2) and low (<2) exercise varieties, assessed by the number of participations in 17 exercise types. By dietary variety, assessed using Dietary Variety Score (range, 0 to 10), participants were grouped into two, high (=4 points) and low (<4 points) dietary varieties. Binary logistic regression analyses were applied to obtain adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs) of the incidence of frailty in the 4 groups (low-exercise and low-dietary varieties [low EV + low DV] as reference; low-exercise and high-dietary varieties [low EV + high DV]; high-exercise and low-dietary varieties [high EV + low DV]; and high-exercise and high-dietary varieties [high EV + high DV]).
Frailty incidence rate was 9.3% over the 2-year follow-up period. Incidence rates of frailty in the 4 groups were as follows: 23.7%, 10.1%, 6.5%, and 7.7% in the low EV + low DV, low EV + high DV, high EV + low DV, and high EV + high DV groups, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, only the high EV + high DV group was associated with a significantly lower OR (0.38; 95% CI 0.15–0.92) of frailty incidence compared with the low EV + low DV group.
Higher variety of exercise and diet was significantly associated with lower incidence of frailty. Thus, the combination of variety-rich exercise and dietary program may be useful in preventing the incidence of frailty in older women.
Key wordsVariety exercise dietary frailty
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