Advertisement

Validity and Reliability of Rapid Cognitive Screening Test for Turkish Older Adults

  • S. Koc Okudur
  • O. Dokuzlar
  • C. Usarel
  • P. Soysal
  • Ahmet Turan Isik
Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

Practical cognitive screening tests, brief and easy-to-administer are needed for primary care. The Rapid Cognitive Screen (RCS) is one of the cognitive screening tests used. The present study aimed to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of RCS (RCS-T) in patients with impaired cognitive status.

Design

Prospective validation study.

Setting and Participants

Total 323 outpatients aged 60 or older, who were performed comprehensive geriatric assessment, were included in the study

Measurements

Patients were screened by RCS-T, Turkish version of Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS-T), Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test for cognitive impairment (CI).

Results

The mean age of the patients was 72.2±7.4. Out of the patients, 217 were considered as cognitively intact, 54 as mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 52 as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cronbach’s alpha value of the RCS-T was 0.674 for AD and 0.713 for CI. The total RCS-T scores were positively correlated with MMSE and SLUMS-T scores (r = 0.647 and r = 0.864, respectively) (p <.001, for each). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.96 for AD, 0.92 for CI and 0.856 for MCI. The sensitivity and specificity for RCS-T for cut-off point of 6 and 4 were 85.85 (%) and 87.56 (%) for CI and 84.62 (%) and 91.14 (%) for AD, respectively.

Conclusions

In a bedside consultation and primary care practice, RCS-T, a simple, quick and sensitive tool for screening CI, seems to be a useful screening test for older patients with CI.

Key words

Screening Alzheimer’s disease mild cognitive impairment cognitive impairment Rapid Cognitive Screen 

References

  1. 1.
    Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. Alzheimers Dement 2018;14(3):367–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hebert LE, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, Evans DA. Annual incidence of Alzheimer disease in the United States projected to the years 2000 through 2050. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2001;15(4):169–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Small GW. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: update on combining genetic and brain–imaging measures. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2000;2(3):241.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Devons CAJ. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: making the most of the aging years. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2002;5(1):19–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Annoni JM, Chouiter L, Démonet JF. Age–related cognitive impairment: conceptual changes and diagnostic strategies. Rev Med Suisse 2016;12(515),774–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cordell CC, Borson S, Boustani M et al. Alzheimer’s Association recommendations for operationalizing the detection of cognitive impairment during the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit in a primary care setting. Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:141–150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin JS, O’Connor E, Rossom R et al. Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults.An evidence updates for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Evidence Report 107. AHRQ Publication 2013;14–05198–EF–1.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McCarten JR, Anderson P, Kuskowski MA, McPherson SE, Borson S. Screening for cognitive impairment in an elderly veteran population: Acceptability and results using different versions of the Mini–Cog. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:309–313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Isik AT, Soysal P, Kaya D, Usarel C. Triple Test, A Diagnostic Observation, Can Detect the Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults. Psychogeriatrics 2018;18(2):98–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lonie JA, Tierney KM, Ebmeier KP. Screening for mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2009;24:902–915.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morley J, Tumosa N. Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS). Aging Success. 2002;12 (1):4.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tariq SH, Tumosa N, Chibnall JT, Perry MH 3rd, Morley JE. Comparison of the Saint Louis University mental status examination and the mini–mental state examination for detecting dementia and mild neurocognitive disorder: a pilot study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;14(11):900–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cummings–Vaughn LA, Chavakula NN, Malmstrom TK, Tumosa N, Morley JE, Cruz–Oliver DM. Veterans Affairs Saint Louis University Mental Status examination compared with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Short Test of Mental Status. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014;62:1341–1346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cao L, Hai S, Lin X et al. Comparison of the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination, the Mini–Mental State Examination, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in detection of cognitive impairment in Chinese elderly from the geriatric department. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012;13:e626–e629.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdelrahman HMM, El Gaafary MM. Validation of Arabic Version of Saint–Louis–University–Mental–Status (SLUMS) Examination and prevalence of cognitive impairment in community dwelling Egyptian older adults. Middle East J Age Ageing 2014;7:11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kaya D, Isik AT, Usarel C, Soysal P, Ellidokuz H, Grossberg GT. The Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination is better than the Mini–Mental State Examination to determine the cognitive impairment in Turkish elderly people. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2016;17(4),370–e11.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malmstrom TK, Voss VB, Cruz–Oliver DM, Cummings–Vaughn LA, Tumosa N, Grossberg GT, Morley JE. The Rapid Cognitive Screen (RCS): A point–ofcare screening for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. J Nutr Health Aging 2015;19(7),741–744L.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommenda¬tions from the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Associa¬tion workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7,263–269.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Durmaz B, Soysal P, Ellidokuz H, Isik AT. Validity and Reliability of Geriatric Depression Scale–15 (short form) in Turkish older adults. North Clin Istanb 2018;5(3), 0–0.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Unutmaz GD, Soysal P, Tuven B, Isik AT. Costs of medication in older patients: before and after comprehensive geriatric assessment. Clin Interv Aging 2018;13:607–613.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prakash O, Jha S. Differential diagnosis for cognitive decline in elderly. J Geriatr Ment Health 2016;3(1),21.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brigola AG, Manzini CSS, Oliveir GBS, Ottaviani AC, Sako MP, Vale FAC. Subjective memory complaints associated with depression and cognitive impairment in the elderly: A systematic review. Dement Neuropsychol 2015;9(1), 51–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ponds R, Commissaris K, Jolles J. Prevalence and covariates of subjective forgetfulness in a normal population in The Netherlands. Int J Aging Hum Dev 1997;45, 207–221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bradford A, Kunik M, Schulz P, Williams SP, Singh H. Missed and delayed diagnosis of dementia in primary care: prevalence and contributing factors. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2009;23: 306–313.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Soysal P, Usarel C, Ispirli G, Isik AT. Attended with and Head–Turning Sign can be clinical markers of cognitive impairment in older adults. Int Psychogeriatr 2017;29, 1763–1769.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Larner AJ. ‘Who came with you?’ A diagnostic observation in patients with memory problems? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76:1739.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Koc Okudur
    • 1
  • O. Dokuzlar
    • 1
  • C. Usarel
    • 2
  • P. Soysal
    • 3
  • Ahmet Turan Isik
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geriatric MedicineDokuz Eylul University, Faculty of MedicineIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Unit for Aging Brain and Dementia, Department of Geriatric MedicineDokuz Eylul University, Faculty of MedicineBalcova, IzmirTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Geriatric MedicineBezmialem Vakif UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations