Characterisation of Faecal Staphylococci from Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) and Their Susceptibility to Gallidermin
Our current knowledge of microbiota in wild ruminants is limited. The goal of this study was to evaluate staphylococcal species in red and roe deer for various attributes (haemolysis, DNase, and urease activities; lactic acid and biofilm production; and antibiotic profile) and their susceptibility to gallidermin. Sixteen staphylococcal strains were identified from faeces of 21 free-living animals (9 adult female Cervus elaphus—red deer and 12 young female Capreolus capreolus—roe deer) sampled by the Polish colleagues in the Strzałowo Forest District, Piska Primaeval Forest. The variability in the species of staphylococci was determined. Seven species (Staphylococcus capitis, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. pseudintermedius, S. vitulinus and S. warneri) and five clusters/groups of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were identified. The strains were generally not haemolytic and Dnase negative; did not form biofilms or only produced low-grade biofilms; exhibited high levels of lactic acid; were urease positive; and were generally susceptible to antibiotics (only two strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics). However, all of the strains were susceptible to the lantibiotic bacteriocin gallidermin, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.0156 μg (up to 6400 AU/ml in arbitrary units). This is the first study to perform a detailed study of the properties of CoNS from roe and red deer.
KeywordsStaphylococci Roe deer Red deer Properties Variety of species
We are grateful to Mrs. Margita Bodnárová for her skillful laboratory work. We also thank Dr. Radomíra Nemcová from the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice for assisting with the microtitre plate assay.
This study was financially supported by the Slovak Scientific Agency VEGA, project 2/0006/17, and ITMS 26220220204 (Probiotech, Centre of Competency for Biomodulators and Nutritive additives). Part of the project was also supported by the Statutory Research Fund of the Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jablonna, Poland.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Approval of animal ethics for the sampling in this study was obtained from the Ethic Commission of Polish partner institution.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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