Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Activities of Camel Lactoferrins Against Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi
- 18 Downloads
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in various secretions (e.g., milk, tears, saliva, pancreatic juice), which performs multiple functions, with one of them being the antimicrobial defense. Purified camel lactoferrins (cLfs) from different Saudi camel clans, as well as human and bovine lactoferrins (hLf or bLf) were tested as antimicrobial agents against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). All cLfs showed superior antibacterial potentials relative to hLf or bLf, while there was no noticeable difference in the antimicrobial capabilities between the cLfs from different camel clans. We observed synergy between the inhibitory activities of Lfs and antibiotics against bacterial growth. Expression of numerous bacterial proteins was affected by the treatment with Lf and its combinations, giving insight into the molecular mechanisms of the Lf action. Furthermore, several bacterial proteins were shown to interact with cLf-biotin. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of obvious extracellular and intracellular changes after S. Typhi treatment by antibiotic (carbenicillin) or cLf alone, and in combination. The effects of antibiotics and Lf were synergistic, supporting the potential of the use of Lf-antibiotic combinations.
KeywordsAntimicrobial Bovine and human lactoferrins Camel lactoferrin Salmonella Typhi Synergy
E.M.R. conceived the idea, supervised the project, organized and analyzed data, contributed to discussion, and wrote the manuscript. N.A.E.-B., H.A.A., A.A.A., S.A.A., and A.A.A. collected and analyzed data, contributed to discussion, and participated in writing of the manuscript. V.N.U. contributed to the data analysis, discussion of the results, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript.
This work was supported by the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology General Directorate of Research Grants Programs, under grant No. LGP–35–84.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- 1.CDC (2013) Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- 5.ECDC, EMEA (2009) The bacterial challenge: time to react European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control European Medicines AgencyGoogle Scholar
- 14.Vitorino R (2018) Digging deep into peptidomics applied to body fluids. Proteomics 18(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201700401
- 19.El-Agamy EI (2006) Camel milk. In: Park YW, Haenlan GFW (eds) Handbook of milk of non-bovine mammals. Wiley-Blackwell, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- 28.El-Fakharany EM, Tabll A, Wahab AA, Redwan EM (2008) Potential activity of camel milk-amylase and lactoferrin against hepatitis C virus infectivity in HepG2 and lymphocytes. Hepat Mon 8(2):101–109Google Scholar
- 31.Redwan EM, El-Baky NA, Al-Hejin AM, Baeshen MN, Almehdar HA, Elsaway A, Gomaa AB, Al-Masaudi SB, Al-Fassi FA, AbuZeid IE, Uversky VN (2016) Significant antibacterial activity and synergistic effects of camel lactoferrin with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Res Microbiol 167(6):480–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Redwan EM, Larsen NA, Wilson IA (2003) Simplified procedure for elimination of co-purified contaminant proteins from human colostrums IgA1. J Egypt Ger Soc Zool 40(A):251–260Google Scholar
- 34.Elass-Rochard E, Roseanu A, Legrand D, Trif M, Salmon V, Motas C, Montreuil J, Spik G (1995) Lactoferrin-lipopolysaccharide interaction: involvement of the 28-34 loop region of human lactoferrin in the high-affinity binding to Escherichia coli 055B5 lipopolysaccharide. Biochem J 312(Pt 3):839–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Cockerill FR, Wikler MA, Alder J, Dudley MN, Eliopoulos GM, Ferraro MJ, Hardy DJ, Hecht DW, Hindler JA, Patel JB, Powell M, Swenson JM, Thomson RB, Traczewski MM, Turnidge JD, Weinstein MP, Zimmer BL (2012) Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard. CLSI document M07-A9.9, vol 32, 9th edn. C.L.S.I. (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute), PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
- 36.Wikler MA (2008) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Eighteenth Informational Supplement. vol 28. C.L.S.I. (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute), PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar