Effects of Potential Probiotic Strains on the Fecal Microbiota and Metabolites of d-Galactose-Induced Aging Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet

  • Lee-Ching Lew
  • Yan-Yan Hor
  • Mohamad-Hafis Jaafar
  • Amy-Sie-Yik Lau
  • Boon-Yin Khoo
  • Sreenivasan Sasidharan
  • Sy-Bing Choi
  • Kee-Leong Ong
  • Tamotsu Kato
  • Yumiko Nakanishi
  • Hiroshi OhnoEmail author
  • Min-Tze LiongEmail author


Both aging and diet play an important role in influencing the gut ecosystem. Using premature senescent rats induced by d-galactose and fed with high-fat diet, this study aims to investigate the effects of different potential probiotic strains on the dynamic changes of fecal microbiome and metabolites. In this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with high-fat diet and injected with d-galactose for 12 weeks to induce aging. The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum DR7, L. fermentum DR9, and L. reuteri 8513d administration on the fecal microbiota profile, short-chain fatty acids, and water-soluble compounds were analyzed. It was found that the administration of the selected strains altered the gut microbiota diversity and composition, even at the phylum level. The fecal short-chain fatty acid content was also higher in groups that were administered with the potential probiotic strains. Analysis of the fecal water-soluble metabolites revealed that administration of L. plantarum DR7 and L. reuteri 8513d led to higher fecal content of compounds related to amino acid metabolism such as tryptophan, leucine, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine, valine, and lysine; while administration of L. fermentum DR9 led to higher prevalence of compounds related to carbohydrate metabolism such as erythritol, xylitol, and arabitol. In conclusion, it was observed that different strains of lactobacilli can cause difference alteration in the gut microbiota and the metabolites, suggesting the urgency to explore the specific metabolic impact of specific strains on the host.


Microbiota profile Fecal metabolites Aging High-fat-diet Lactobacillus Probiotic 


Author Contributions

LCL and MTL conceived and designed the experiments. LCL, YYH, MHJ, and ASYL performed the study. LCL analyzed the data. KBY, SBC, SS, TK, and HO provided psychological and experimental advice and services. LCL and MTL drafted the work, critically revised for intellectual content. LCL wrote the manuscript.

Funding Information

This work was supported by the URICAS grant (1001/PTEKIND/870030) provided by Universiti Sains Malaysia, MyBrain15-MyPhD from Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), and funding by Clinical Nutrition Intl (M) Sdn. Bhd.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All animal experiments were approved by the USM Animal Care and Use Committee (USM/Animal Ethics Approval/2016/(724)) and were carried out under GLP condition and facility (Animal Research and Service Centre, USM Advanced Medical and Dental Institute) according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Health Service Policy.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee-Ching Lew
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yan-Yan Hor
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohamad-Hafis Jaafar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amy-Sie-Yik Lau
    • 1
    • 2
  • Boon-Yin Khoo
    • 3
  • Sreenivasan Sasidharan
    • 3
  • Sy-Bing Choi
    • 4
  • Kee-Leong Ong
    • 5
  • Tamotsu Kato
    • 6
  • Yumiko Nakanishi
    • 6
  • Hiroshi Ohno
    • 2
    • 6
    • 7
    Email author
  • Min-Tze Liong
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
  2. 2.USM-RIKEN International Centre for Ageing Science (URICAS)Universiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute for Research in Molecular MedicineUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
  4. 4.School of Data SciencesPerdana UniversitySerdangMalaysia
  5. 5.Clinical Nutrition Intl (M) Sdn. BhdKuala LumpurMalaysia
  6. 6.Laboratory for Intestinal EcosystemRIKEN Center for Integrative Medical SciencesYokohamaJapan
  7. 7.Immunobiology Laboratory, Graduate School of Medical Life ScienceYokohama City UniversityYokohamaJapan

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