Comparative Analysis of Antigiardial Potential of Heat Inactivated and Probiotic Protein of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Murine Giardiasis
The present study was designed to envisage the antigiardial efficacy of killed probiotic and probiotic protein (PP) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in murine giardiasis. Experimentally, it was observed that animal administered either with probiotic protein emulsified with adjuvant (PP(E) + Giardia) or killed probiotic (killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia) had significantly reduced Giardia cycle with respect to observed severity and duration of giardiasis compared with Giardia-infected mice. Further, it was found that animals belonging to PP(E) + Giardia and killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia had significantly high levels of antigiardial IgA antibody and nitric oxide both in serum and in intestinal fluid compared with Giardia-infected and counter control mice. Histopathologyically, also animals belonging to PP(E) + Giardia and killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia animals had intact mucosal epithelium lining, basal crypts, and normal villi along with increased goblet cells compared with severe microvillus atrophy, vacuolated epithelial cells, and ileitis in Giardia-infected mice. This is the first-ever study to demonstrate that prior administration of either killed probiotics or probiotic protein of effective probiotic reduced both the severity and the duration of giardiasis mainly by modulating the gut microbiome and morphology along with mucosal immunity, but animals belonging to PP(E) + Giardia had better response than killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia suggesting that probiotic components do have adjuvant potential and may be used as the vaccine candidate for gastrointestinal diseases.
KeywordsProbiotics Giardiasis Killed probiotics Probiotic protein IgA antibody
Authors greatly acknowledge the help provided by Mr. Mohan Singh Bhandari, Senior Technician, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, for maintaining and providing the Giardia culture. Help provided by Ms. Swati for labeling the histological pictures of small intestine (jejunum) is acknowledged.
Geeta Shukla designed and edited the study. Shweta Kamboj performed, compiled the data, and wrote the manuscript. Bhawna Sharma helped in performing and analyzing the data.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Animal experimentation procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Animal Care of Panjab University, Chandigarh, India (PU/IAEC/S/15/82).
- 2.Blanchet-Rethore S, Bourde V, Mercenier A, Haddar CH, Verhoeven PO, Andres P (2017) Effect of a lotion containing the heat-treated probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 on Staphylococcus aureus colonization in atopic dermatitis. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 10:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Eckmann L, Laurent F, Langford D, Hetsko ML, Smith JR, Kagnoff MF, Gillin FD (2000) Nitric oxide production by human intestinal epithelial cells and competition for arginine as potential determinants of host defense against the lumen-dwelling pathogen Giardia Lamblia. J Immunol 164:1478–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Ferreirinha P, Dias J, Correia A, PerezCabezas B, Santos C, Teixeira L, Ribeiro P, Rocha A, Vilanova M (2013) Protective effect of intranasal immunization with Neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract. Immunology 141:256–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Ghazi F, Henni DE, Benmechernene Z, Kihal M (2009) Phenotypic and probiotic protein analysis by SDS-PAGE for identification of dominants lactic acid bacteria isolated from algerian raw milk. World J Dairy Food Sci 4(1):78–87Google Scholar
- 13.Harini A, Kumar A, Gupta P, Shivakumar N (2013) An overview of immunologic adjuvants—a review. J Vaccines Vaccin 4:167–171Google Scholar
- 29.Shukla G, Sharma A, Bhatia R, Sharma M (2017) Prophylactic potential of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei and inulin) in malnourished murine giardiasis: an immunological and ultrastructural study. Probiotic Antimicrob Proteins. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-017-9368-5
- 31.Tiwari RP, Hoondal GS, Tewari R (2009) Laboratory techniques in microbiology and biotechnology. Abhishek Publications, ChandigarhGoogle Scholar
- 32.Travers MA, Sow C, Zirah S, Deregnacourt C, Chaouch S, Queiroz RM, Charneau S, Allain T, Florent I, Grellier P (2016) Deconjugated bile salts produced by extracellular bile-salt hydrolase-like activities from the probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 inhibit Giardia duodenalis in vitro growth. Front Microbiol 7:1453–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Ueno N, Fujiya M, Segawa S, Nata T, Inaba Y, Moriichi K, Tanabe H, Mizukami Y, Kobayashi N, Ito K, Kohgo Y (2011) T2043 heat-killed body of Lactobacillus brevis Sbc8803 contributes to maintain intestinal homeostasis and improve intestinal injury in a murine model of colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 17(11):2235–2250CrossRefGoogle Scholar