Effects of Dietary Clostridium butyricum on the Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activity, Antioxidant Capacity, and Resistance to Nitrite Stress of Penaeus monodon
The present study investigated the effects of the dietary probiotic Clostridium butyricum (CB) on the growth, intestine digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant capacity and resistance to nitrite stress, and body composition of Penaeus monodon. For 56 days, shrimps were fed diets containing different levels of C. butyricum (1 × 109 CFU g−1), 0% (control), 0.5% (CB1), 1.0% (CB2), and 2.0% (CB3), as treatment groups, followed by an acute nitrite stress test for 48 h. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of C. butyricum increased the growth of shrimp in the CB2 and CB3 groups. The survival rate of shrimp increased after nitrite stress for 24 and 48 h. The intestine amylase and trypsin activities increased in all three C. butyricum groups, while the lipase activity was only affected in the CB3 group. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and ferritin gene expression levels were increased in the intestines of shrimps cultured under normal conditions for 56 days, while the catalase (CAT) activity was not changed and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was only increased in the CB2 and CB3 groups. After exposure to nitrite stress for 24 and 48 h, the intestine antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, and GPx) activity and gene (hsp70 and ferritin) expression levels in the three C. butyricum groups were higher than those of the control. C. butyricum had no effects on the whole body composition of the shrimp. These results revealed that C. butyricum improved the growth as well as enhanced the intestine digestive enzyme and antioxidant activities of P. monodon against nitrite stress, and C. butyricum may be a good probiotic for shrimp aquaculture.
KeywordsPenaeus monodon Clostridium butyricum Intestine Digestive Antioxidant Nitrite stress
The authors were grateful to all the laboratory members for experimental material preparation and technical assistance. This study was supported by the earmarked fund for Guangdong Provincial Special Fund for Marine Fisheries Technology (A201701B09), Fund of Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, People’s Republic of China (FREU2017-01), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2017A030313147), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment (LFE-2016-12), Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, CAFS (2016TS07), Shenzhen Science and Technology Planning Project (JCYJ20170412110605075).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
The collection and handling of the animals in this study was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee at the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, and all experimental animal protocols were carried out in accordance with national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals at the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences.
- 3.Tourtip S, Wongtripop S, Stentiford GD, Bateman KS, Sriurairatana S, Chavadej J, Sritunyalucksana K, Withyachumnarnkul B (2009) Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp nov (Microsporida: Enterocytozoonidae), a parasite of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Penaeidae): fine structure and phylogenetic relationships. J Invertebr Pathol 102:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Joshi J, Srisala J, Truong VH, Chen IT, Nuangsaeng B, Suthienkul O, Lo CF, Flegel TW, Sritunyalucksana K, Thitamadee S (2014) Variation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from a single Thai shrimp farm experiencing an outbreak of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Aquaculture 428:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Guo H, Xian JA, Li B, Ye CX, Wang AL, Miao YT, Liao SA (2013) Gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, stress protein and antioxidant enzymes in hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under nitrite stress. Comp Biochem Physiol C 157(4):366–371Google Scholar
- 15.De BC, Meena DK, Behera BK, Das P, Das Mohapatra PK, Sharma AP (2014) Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses. Fish Physiol Biochem 40(3):921–971Google Scholar
- 22.Gao QX, Wu TX, Wang JB, Zhuang QC (2011) Inhibition of bacterial adhesion to HT-29 cells by lipoteichoic acid extracted from Clostridium butyricum. Afr J Biotechnol 10(39):7633–7639Google Scholar
- 23.Zhang L, Zhang LL, Zhan XA, Zeng XF, Zhou L, Cao GT, Chen AG, Yang CM (2016) Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic, Clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 7:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Duan YF, Zhang Y, Dong HB, Zheng XT, Wang Y, Li H, Liu QS, Zhang JS (2017) Effect of dietary poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on growth performance, intestinal health status and body composition of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Fish Shellfish Immunol 60:520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Official AOAC (2005) Methods of analysis of AOAC International, 18th edn. AOAC International, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
- 32.Zheng XT, Duan YF, Dong HB, Zhang JS (2017) Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum in different treatments on growth performance and immune gene expression of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and stress of acute low salinity. Fish Shellfish Immunol 62:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Pan XD (2006) Research on adherence and anti-bacteria property of Clostridium butyricum and its effect on Miichthys miiuy intestinal physiology. Zhejiang Univ Dissertation, 48–60Google Scholar
- 37.Araki Y, Andoh A, Fujiyama Y, Takizawa J, Takizawa W, Bamba T (2002) Oral administration of a product derive from Clostridium butyricum in rats. Int J Mol Med 9:53–57Google Scholar