Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 830–839 | Cite as

In-vitro GIT Tolerance of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 35914 Using Polysaccharide-Protein Matrix

  • Rabia Iqbal
  • Tahir Zahoor
  • Nuzhat HumaEmail author
  • Amer Jamil
  • Gülhan Ünlü


Longevity of probiotic is the main concern for getting maximum benefits when added in food product. Bifidobacterium, a probiotic, tends to lose its viability during gastrointestinal track (GIT) transit and storage of food. Their viability can be enhanced through microencapsulation technology. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) ATCC 35914 was encapsulated by using two experimental plans. In the first plan, chitosan (CH) at 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and sodium alginate (SA) at 4, 5, and 6% were used. Based on encapsulation efficiency, 6% sodium alginate and 0.8% chitosan were selected for single coating of the bacteria, and the resulting micro beads were double coated with different concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10%) of whey protein concentrate (WPC) in the second plan. Encapsulation efficiency and GIT tolerance were determined by incubating the micro beads in simulated gastrointestinal juices (SIJ) at variable pH and exposure times, and their release (liberation of bacterial cells) profile was also observed in SIJ. The microencapsulated bacterial cells showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher viability as compared to the unencapsulated (free) cells during GIT assay. The double-coated micro beads SA 6%–WPC 5% and CH 0.8%–WPC 5% were proven to have the higher survival at pH 3.0 after 90 min of incubation time and at pH 7.0 after 3-h exposure in comparison to free cells in simulated conditions of the stomach and intestine, respectively. Moreover, double coating with whey protein concentrate played a significant role in the targeted (106–9 CFU/mL) delivery under simulated intestinal conditions.


Encapsulation Bifidobacterium bifidum, chitosan Alginate Gastrointestinal survival Colon 



We acknowledge colleagues and institutions of National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University Faisalabad, HEC, and School of Food Science, UI (University of Idaho) in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) for providing moral, funding, and laboratory support and their contributions. Special thanks are for Dr. Gulhan Unlu and Dr. Boffman, UI, USA and Dr. Tahir Zahoor, Dr. Nuzhat Huma, and Dr. Amer Jamil UAF-Pakistan for providing all guidelines in the field of study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rabia Iqbal
    • 1
  • Tahir Zahoor
    • 1
  • Nuzhat Huma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amer Jamil
    • 2
  • Gülhan Ünlü
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.School of Food Science, College of Agricultural and Life SciencesUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

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