Defense responses of Capsicum spp. genotypes to post-harvest Colletotrichum sp. inoculation
- 39 Downloads
Pepper (Capsicum spp.) cultivars resistant to anthracnose are not commercially available and depending on conducive environmental conditions the crop faces significant yield losses. Pepper genotypes from a germplasm collection were screened for resistance to anthracnose. Unripe and ripe mature fruit of selected genotypes were inoculated post-harvest with Colletotrichum sp. Plant disease resistance-associated parameters were evaluated, and complete resistance was not observed in any genotype. Genotype P27 (Capsicum baccatum) showed the most disease resistance, while P175 (Capsicum chinense) showed the greatest disease susceptibility. These contrasting individuals for disease response were further investigated in an attempt to better understand pepper defense mechanisms. A response to disease common to both resistant and susceptible genotypes involved changes in threitol, carotenoids, and soluble solids contents, and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity. Disease incidence and severity was dependent on ripening stage and involved the accumulation of polar compounds butane-2,3-diol, fructose, and phenolics, and superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities.
KeywordsSolanaceae Genetic diversity Anthracnose Disease resistance Redox enzymes Metabolomics
The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernardo Ueno from the Plant Pathology Laboratory of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture, Pelotas for providing the Colletotrichum sp. isolate, SDECT-RS (Programa de Apoio aos Polos Tecnológicos) for financial support for research, and CNPq for financial support for research and scholarships.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Acunha, T. S., Crizel, R. L., Tavares, I. B., Barbieri, R. L., Pereira, C. M. P., Rombaldi, C. V., & Chaves, F. C. (2017). Bioactive compound variability in a Brazilian Capsicum pepper collection. Crop Science, 65, 523–532.Google Scholar
- AOAC. (2005). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (16th edition). AOAC International: Arlington, Texas.Google Scholar
- Baba, V. Y., Constantino, L. V., Ivamoto, S. T., Moreira, A. F. P., Madeira, T. B., Nixdorf, S. L., Rodrigues, R., & Gonçalves, L. S. A. (2019). Capsicum-Colletotrichum interaction: Identification of resistance sources and quantification of secondary metabolites in unripe and ripe fruits in response to anthracnose infection. Sci. Hort., 246, 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guetsky, R., Kobiler, I., Wang, X., Perlman, N., Gollop, N., Avila-Quezada, G., Hadar, I., & Prusky, D. (2005). Metabolism of the flavonoid epicatechin by laccase of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its effect on pathogenicity on avocado fruit. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 95, 1341–1348.Google Scholar
- Ho, W. C., & Ko, W. H. (1997). A simple method for obtaining single-spore isolates of fungi. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica, 38, 41–44.Google Scholar
- Koskimäki, J. J., Hokkanen, J., Jaakola, L., Suorsa, M., Tolonen, A., & Mattila, S. (2009). Flavonoid biosynthesis and degradation play a role in early defense responses of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) against biotic stress. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125, 629–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, P., Dai, T., Chang, X., Hu, Z., Liang, L., Sun, M., & Liu, X. L. (2019). Untargeted metabolomics based on GC-MS and chemometrics: A new tool for the early diagnosis of strawberry anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum theobromicola. Plant Disease, PDIS-01-19-0219. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-19-0219-RE.
- Mishra, R., Rout, E., Mohanty, J. N., & Joshi, R. K. (2019). Sequence-tagged site-based diagnostic markers linked to a novel anthracnose resistance gene RCt1 in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica, 9, 9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1552-0.Google Scholar
- Nadella, K. D., Marla, S. S., & Kumar, P. A. (2012). Metabolomics in agriculture. J. Int. Biol., 16(4), 149–159.Google Scholar
- Park, S., Kim, S. H., Park, H. G., & Yoon, J. B. (2009). Capsicum germplasm resistance to pepper anthracnose differentially interacts with Colletotrichum isolates. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, 50, 17–23.Google Scholar
- Park, S., Jeong, W. Y., Lee, J. H., Kim, Y. H., Jeong, S. W., Kim, G. S., Bae, D. W., Lim, C. S., Jin, L. S., Lee, S. J., & Shin, S. C. (2012). Determination of polyphenol levels variation in Capsicum annuum L. cv. Chelsea (yellow bell pepper) infected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 130, 981–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saxena, A., Raghuwanshi, R., Gupta, V. K., & Singh, H. B. (2016). Chilli anthracnose: The epidemiology and management. Frontiers in Microbiology, 4, 1–18.Google Scholar
- Silva, S. A. M., Rodrigues, R., Gonçalves, L. S. A., Sudré, C. P., Bento, C. S., Carmo, M. G. F., & Medeiros, A. M. (2014). Resistance in Capsicum spp. to anthracnose affected by different stages of fruit development during pre- and post-harvest. Tropical Plant Pathology, 39, 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Suwor, P., Thummabenjapone, P., Sanitchon, J., Kumar, S., Techawongstien, S. (2016). Role of two inoculation methods in the expression of anthracnose resistance gene in chili (Capsicum annuum L.). In III International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology: Using Science to Increase Food Availability, A. Ippolito et al., Eds, (pp. 207-214) SHS Acta Horticulturae 1144.Google Scholar
- Tattersall, D. B., Heeswijck, R. V., & Hoj, P. B. (1997). Identification and characterization of a fruit-specific, thaumatin-like protein that accumulates at very high levels in conjunction with the onset of sugar accumulation and berry softening in grapes. Plant Physiology, 114, 759–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar