Spinosad resistance selected in the laboratory strain of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): studies on risk assessment and cross-resistance patterns

  • Ansa BanazeerEmail author
  • Muhammad Babar Shahzad AfzalEmail author
  • Mamuna Ijaz
  • Sarfraz Ali ShadEmail author


Cotton is a major cash crop of Pakistan and susceptible to a variety of insect attacks including the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). In this study we determined the rate of risk of resistance development in P. solenopsis against spinosad by selection experiments and also evaluated the cross-resistance of spinosad selected population with spinetoram, profenofos, and deltamethrin. The spinosad selected population developed 539.49 and 15,233.84-fold resistance after 22 generations of selection compared with field and laboratory susceptible populations, respectively. Cross-resistance induced due to selection with spinosad was very low, medium and very high to profenofos, spinetoram, and deltamethrin, respectively in P. solenopsis. Realized heritability (h2) of spinosad resistance was 0.06. At constant slope = 1.10, ten-fold increase in resistance to spinosad would require 8.27, 3.1, and 1.91 generations for their corresponding h2 = 0.06, 0.16 and 0.26 at 95% selection intensity. At constant h2 = 0.06, the number of generations needed for ten-fold increase in spinosad resistance would be 8.27, 15.78, and 23.30 for their corresponding slope values 1.10, 2.10 and 3.10, respectively if selection intensity is 95%. The development of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis can be reduced by adopting IPM strategies such as insecticide rotation schemes, i.e. discontinue the use of the same insecticide for as long as possible, use of refuges and adoption of suitable cultural and biological control practices.


Spinosad Bio-pesticide Cotton mealybug Cross-resistance Resistance prediction Management 



The authors are grateful to Dr. Whitworth Robert J. (Jeff), Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, USA to improve the final version of draft for English language and sense.

Author contributions

MBSA and SAS conceived and designed the study. MBSA collected the population from field. MBSA and MI reared the insect and performed laboratory work. AB and MBSA analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. SAS read and improved the quality of earlier version of draft.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosure statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Citrus Research InstituteSargodhaPakistan

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