First record of the invasive Bondar’s nesting whitefly, Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi on coconut from India

  • A. JosephrajkumarEmail author
  • Chandrika Mohan
  • Merin Babu
  • Arya Krishna
  • V. Krishnakumar
  • Vinayaka Hegde
  • P. Chowdappa


First incidence of the neotropical invasive Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly (BNW), Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in India is reported on coconut palms from Kerala. P. bondari constructs unique woolly wax nests on abaxial surface of palm leaflets and possesses “X”-shaped oblique greyish bands on wings. Presence of flower-petal like ovoid facets on abdominal compound pores (33–35 μm) of the puparium and conspicuous single dorsal and ventral horn with a pair of apicolateral processes on the adult male aedeagus confirms the typical morphological identification features. Partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences (675 bp) from the Indian specimens shared 100% nucleotide identity with BNW, thus confirming its identity as P. bondari. Co-existence of P. bondari and Aleurodicus rugioperculatus on coconut palms indicate probable simultaneous introduction of both these pests from the New World. The polyphagous nature of the non-native BNW warrants stringent quarantine protocols to prevent its further spread to other coconut growing areas.


Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Neotropical region Quarantine pests Bio-invasion 



Authors thank Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for the grant in aid through ICAR-CPCRI Institutional Project and Smt. Preetha and Ms. Reshmi for their assistance in insect collection and processing of specimens. The authors wholeheartedly thank Dr. J. Poorani, Principal Scientist, ICAR-NRCB, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu for critically reviewing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Josephrajkumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chandrika Mohan
    • 1
  • Merin Babu
    • 1
  • Arya Krishna
    • 1
  • V. Krishnakumar
    • 1
  • Vinayaka Hegde
    • 2
  • P. Chowdappa
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-CPCRI, Regional StationKayamkulamIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-CPCRIKasaragodIndia

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