Detection of Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus transmitted by Bemisia tabaci Asia I in tomato and pepper
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Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) has caused serious yield loss of tomato in Thailand for more than three decades. Control of the virus is essential for successful integrated disease management (IDM) strategies. This study investigated the capability of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) to transmit TYLCTHV on two host plants—tomato and pepper—and sought to detect the presence of viral DNA in the plants and whiteflies after two transmissions. The new TYLCTHV isolate used in this study (SPN-Tom1A) was 2756 nts long with typical characteristics of TYLCTHV DNA-A. Viral DNA-A (WF-SPN Tom2015) also was detected in viruliferous whiteflies; nucleotide sequence revealed 99% identity to TYLCTHV SPN-Tom1A sequence. In duplicated transmission test, vector B. tabaci Asia I was highly efficient in transmitting TYLCTHV from tomato to tomato by 90–100%, followed by the transmission from tomato to pepper by 55–90%. In contrast, the transmission rate of TYLCTHV pepper to tomato seedlings was nil. Tomato plants showed upward cupping and yellow leaves typical of TYLCTHV infection only when TYLCTHV was transmitted from tomato to tomato, but when transmitted to pepper, the infected peppers were symptomless. Bodies of viruliferous whiteflies fed on tomato and pepper were confirmed by PCR for the presence of TYLCTHV at 58.89–80% and 60–89.45%, respectively. Our results thus provide evidence that pepper infected with TYLCTHV is not a source plant for TYLCTHV transmission to tomato.
KeywordsTYLCTHV Transmission Bemisia tabaci Tomato Pepper
The authors are grateful for financial support provided for the Beating Begomoviruses project (11.7860.7-001.00) by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) through Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and from core donors to the World Vegetable Center: Republic of China (Taiwan), UK aid from the UK government, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Germany, Thailand, Philippines, Korea, and Japan. We appreciate the use of laboratory facilities at the World Vegetable Center, East and Southeast Asia and the Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus. Thanks are also expressed to Ms. Jutarat Lidjun, PhD in Agricultural Biotechnology, for technical support in molecular analysis.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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