, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 89–97 | Cite as

Determination of pathogenicity of Bursaphelenchus species on different pine species under natural conditions in Düzce

  • Nuray Öztürk
  • Süleyman AkbulutEmail author
  • İsmail Baysal


The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a pathogen of conifer forest trees. This pest is characterized by the sudden death of infected pine trees. In this study, pathogenicity tests of six native Bursaphelenchus species (B. mucronatus, B. sexdentati, B. anamurius, B. vallesianus, B. andrassyi and B. hellenicus) on three pine species (Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) using two inoculum doses under natural conditions were conducted. For each treatment, 8 trees of each species were inoculated. For each tree species 8 trees were used as control groups. Inoculated trees were monitored for a year after inoculation. Monthly oleoresin flow measurements were carried out and external symptoms (foliage coloration) observed. Nematode inoculated trees did not die at the end of the study. The amount of oleoresin flow differed significantly among tree species. Inoculated Bursaphelenchus species did not cause any significant difference in the oleoresin flow between inoculated and uninoculated trees. We concluded that Bursaphelenchus species used in this study were not pathogenic to pine trees growing under natural forest stand conditions.


Bursaphelenchus Oleoresin flow Pathogenicity Pinus spp. 



This study is supported by Düzce University, Research Fund Project Number 2015.02.02.338. The authors greatly acknowledged the assistance and permission of General Directorate of Forestry, Bolu Regional Directorate of Forestry. The authors thank to Abdulmutalip Öztürk and Eyüp Öztürk for their help during field studies. The authors also kindly thank Dr. W. T. Stamps (University of Missouri-Columbia, USA) for his review of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The others declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Entomology and Protection Unit, Faculty of ForestryDüzce UniversityDüzceTurkey

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