Rare Metals

, Volume 38, Issue 10, pp 914–921 | Cite as

Integrated utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and bottom ash for preparation of foam glass–ceramics

  • Bo Liu
  • Qiang-Wei Yang
  • Shen-Gen ZhangEmail author
Original Paper


For the purpose of solid waste co-disposal and heavy metal stabilization, foam glass–ceramics were produced by using municipal solid waste incineration (MWSI) bottom ash and fly ash as main raw materials, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as foamer and sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) as foam stabilizer. The influences of the raw material composition, foaming temperature and foaming time on the properties were investigated. Porosity, bulk density, mechanical property and leaching of heavy metals were analyzed accordingly. The product, foamed at 1150 °C for 30 min with 14% fly ash and 74% bottom ash, exhibits excellent comprehensive properties, such as high porosity (76.03%), low bulk density (0.67 g·cm−3) and high compressive strength (10.56 MPa). Moreover, the amount of leaching heavy metals, including Cr, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ni, in foam glass–ceramics is significantly lower than that of the US EPA hazardous waste thresholds. This study not only realizes the integrated utilization of bottom ash and fly ash, but also addresses a new strategy for obtaining foam glass–ceramics.


Municipal solid waste incineration ash Foam glass–ceramics Mechanical properties Stabilization 



This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51672024 and 51502014), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFB0702304), the Program of China Scholarships Council (No. 201806465040) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. FRF-IC-18-008).


  1. [1]
    Nakakubo T, Yoshid N, Hattori Y. Analysis of greenhouse gas emission reductions by collaboratively updating equipment in sewage treatment and municipal solid waste incineration plants. J Clean Prod. 2017;168:803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Dong J, Tang YJ, Nzihou A, Chi Y, Weiss-Hortala E, Ni MJ, Zhou ZZ. Comparison of waste-to-energy technologies of gasification and incineration using life cycle assessment: case studies in Finland, France and China. J Clean Prod. 2018;203:287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Goh CK, Valavan SE, Low TK, Tang LH. Effects of different surface modification and contents on municipal solid waste incineration fly ash/epoxy composites. Waste Manag. 2016;58:309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Xuan DX, Tang P, Poon CS. Limitations and quality upgrading techniques for utilization of MSW incineration bottom ash in engineering applications—a review. Constr Build Mater. 2018;190:1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Fan WD, Liu B, Luo X, Yang J, Guo B, Zhang SG. Production of glass-ceramics using municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Rare Met. 2019;38(3):245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Tang JF, Steenari BM. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: a case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd. Waste Manag. 2016;48:315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Wu HN, Wang Q, Ko JH, Xu QY. Characteristics of geotextile clogging in MSW landfills co-disposed with MSWI bottom ash. Waste Manag. 2018;78:164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Behrooznia L, Sharifi M, Alimardani R, Mousavi-Avval SH. Sustainability analysis of landfilling and composting-landfilling for municipal solid waste management in the north of Iran. J Clean Prod. 2018;203:1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Tang JF, Petranikova M, Ekberg C, Steenari BM. Mixer-settler system for the recovery of copper and zinc from MSWI fly ash leachates: an evaluation of a hydrometallurgical process. J Clean Prod. 2017;148:595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Li JT, Zeng M, Ji WX. Characteristics of the cement-solidified municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018;15(36):36736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Li JT, Zeng M, Ji WX. Characteristics of the cement-solidified municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018;25(36):36736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Huang QF, Yang YF, Wang Q. Potential for serious environmental threats from uncontrolled co-processing of wastes in cement kilns. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:13031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Sasmal N, Garai M, Karmakar B. Preparation and characterization of novel foamed porous glass-ceramics. Mater Charact. 2015;103:90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Silva RV, de Brito J, Lye CQ, Dhir RK. The role of glass waste in the production of ceramic-based products and other applications: a review. J Clean Prod. 2017;167:346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Vaisman YI, Ketov AA, Ketov PA. The scientific and technological aspects of foam glass production. Glass Phys Chem. 2015;41(2):157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Apkar’yan AS, Gubaidulina TA, Kaminskaya OV. Foam-glass Ceramic based filtering material for removing iron and manganese from drinking water. Glass Ceram. 2015;71(11–12):413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Baino F, Vitale-Brovarone C. Mechanical properties and reliability of glass-ceramic foam scaffolds for bone repair. Mater Lett. 2014;118:27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Guo Y, Zhang Y, Huang H, Meng K, Hu K, Hu P, Wang X, Zhang Z, Meng X. Novel glass ceramic foams materials based on red mud. Ceram Int. 2014;40(5):6677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Zhou M, Ge X, Wang H, Chen L, Chen X. Effect of the CaO content and decomposition of calcium-containing minerals on properties and microstructure of ceramic foams from fly ash. Ceram Int. 2017;43(12):9451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Guo B, Liu B, Yang J, Zhang SG. The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization by cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: a review. J Environ Manag. 2017;193:410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Fan WD, Yang QW, Guo B, Liu B, Zhang SG. Crystallization mechanism of glass-ceramics prepared from stainless steel slag. Rare Met. 2018;37(5):413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Tang B, Lin J, Qian S, Wang J, Zhang S. Preparation of glass-ceramic foams from the municipal solid waste slag produced by plasma gasification process. Mater Lett. 2014;128:68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Romero AR, Salvo M, Bernardo E. Up-cycling of vitrified bottom ash from MSWI into glass-ceramic foams by means of ‘inorganic gel casting’ and sinter-crystallization. Constr Build Mater. 2018;192:133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Monich PR, Romero AR, Hollen D, Bernardo E. Porous glass-ceramics from alkali activation and sinter-crystallization of mixtures of waste glass and residues from plasma processing of municipal solid waste. J Clean Prod. 2018;188(1):871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Wang H, Feng K, Sun Q. Effect of calcium carbonate on the preparation of glass ceramic foams from water-quenched titanium-bearing blast furnace slag and waste glass. Adv Appl Ceram. 2018;117(5):312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Cambronero LED, Ruiz-Roman JM, Corpas FA, Ruiz Prieto JM. Manufacturing of Al–Mg–Si alloy foam using calcium carbonate as foaming agent. J Mater Process Technol. 2009;209(4):1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Cao J, Lu J, Jiang L, Wang Z. Sinterability, microstructure and compressive strength of porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical silicon slag and waste glass. Ceram Int. 2016;42(8):10079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Guo Y, Zhang Y, Huang H, Meng X, Liu Y, Tu S, Li B. Novel glass ceramic foams materials based on polishing porcelain waste using the carbon ash waste as foaming agent. Constr Build Mater. 2016;125:1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Liu T, Li X, Guan L, Liu P, Wu T, Li Z, Lu A. Low-cost and environment-friendly ceramic foams made from lead-zinc mine tailings and red mud: foaming mechanism, physical, mechanical and chemical properties. Ceram Int. 2016;42(1):1733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Zhu M, Ji R, Li Z, Wang H, Liu L, Zhang Z. Preparation of glass ceramic foams for thermal insulation applications from coal fly ash and waste glass. Constr Build Mater. 2016;112:398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Bernardo E, Albertini F. Glass foams from dismantled cathode ray tubes. Ceram Int. 2006;32(6):603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Nonferrous Metals Society of China and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Advanced Materials and TechnologyUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations