Rare Metals

, Volume 38, Issue 10, pp 971–978 | Cite as

Characteristics of Ce–Mn film on 6061 alloys and its improved performance

  • Xue-Long Hao
  • Wen Ma
  • Chu Luo
  • Shi-Chao Yang
  • Hong Ji
  • Kai ZhangEmail author


HF2 was applied to accelerate the Ce–Mn film formation on 6061 Al alloy in the Ce3+–MnO4 solution. The process of film formation, the composition and structure of the film were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The film formation process includes three stages. At the initial stage, a three-dimensional (3D) skeleton was formed quickly, and then the skeleton was fully filled with cerium oxide and manganese oxide, resulting in a dense structure. Subsequently, a new skeleton was formed and also filled. Al, Ce, O and Mn were detected in the film. Ce existed mainly in the form of Ce4+ (89%). The film existed in an amorphous form and was composed of ceria (cerium hydroxide), manganese dioxide and aluminum oxide. After electrostatically spraying fluorocarbon powder, the resultant products satisfied the required mechanical performance and exhibited almost non-filament corrosion compared with commercially available chromium-free conversion film. Its corrosion resistant time to acetate spray can reach 2000 h, which is consistent with that of fluorocarbon paint. The results showed that Ce–Mn film can offer an attractive prospect to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOC) problem arisen by using fluorocarbon paint in the process of industrial production.


Aluminum alloy Ce–Mn film Process of film formation Amorphous 



This study was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFB0702100) and the Pearl River S&T Nova Program of Guangzhou (No. 201806010154).


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Copyright information

© The Nonferrous Metals Society of China and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GRIMAT Engineering Institute Co., Ltd.BeijingChina
  2. 2.National Center of Analysis and Testing for Nonferrous Metals and Electronic MaterialsGeneral Research Institute for Nonferrous MetalsBeijingChina
  3. 3.China United Testing & Certification Co., Ltd.BeijingChina
  4. 4.Guobiao (Beijing) Testing & Certification Co., Ltd.BeijingChina
  5. 5.GRINM Bohan (Beijing) Publisher Co., LtdBeijingChina
  6. 6.Guangdong Provincial Academy of Building ResearchGuangzhouChina
  7. 7.Guangdong Zhuhai Supervision Testing Institute of Quality and MetrologyZhuhaiChina

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