Advertisement

Rare Metals

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 35–41 | Cite as

Pressureless sintering behavior and properties of Ag–SnO2

  • Henri DesplatsEmail author
  • Elodie Brisson
  • Philippe Rogeon
  • Patrick Carré
  • Alexandre Bonhomme
Article
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the results of measurements on pressureless sintering behavior of Ag–SnO2 (88%wt Ag, 12%wt SnO2) pellets were reported. Dilatometric measurements, relative densities, hardness values, rupture transverse strength and electrical conductivities function of sintering temperatures were presented. A constant thermal expansion coefficient was determined, and a threshold temperature of densification (Td) was exhibited. Sintering kinetics were reported for different temperatures. Hardness values were measured, and no increase in hardness is found under Td. Three-points bending tests were used to determine the transverse rupture strength whose evolution appears importantly well under Td. In the same manner, the increase in initial electrical conductivities begins well under Td. Under the threshold temperature, the relative increase in electrical conductivity is found to be independent of initial density of green compact pellets. This work highlights different evolutions in function of sintering temperature for the electrical conductivity and transverse rupture strength on the one hand, and for the densification and hardness on the other hand.

Keywords

Ag–SnO2 Pressureless sintering Dilatometry Mechanical properties Electrical conductivity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by the French National Research Agency REF ANR (No.ANR-09-MAPR-0007-MAPR).

References

  1. [1]
    Wojtasik K, Missol W. PM helps develop cadmium-free electrical contacts. Met Powder Rep. 2004;59(7):34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Nilsson O, Hauner F, Jeannot D. Replacement of AgCdO by AgSnO2 in DC contactors. In: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference Electrical Contacts and the 22nd International Conference on Electrical Contacts, Seattle; 2004. 70.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Gengenbach B, Mayer U, Michal R, Saeger K. Investigation on the switching behavior of AgSnO2 materials in commercial contactors. IEEE Trans Compon Hybrids Manuf Technol. 1985;8:58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Wingert PC, Leung CH. The development of silver-based cadmium-free contact materials. IEEE Trans Compon Hybrids Manuf Technol. 1989;12:16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Behrens V, Honig T, Andreas Kraus A, Michal R, Saeger K, Schmidberger R, Staneff T. An advanced silver/tin oxide contact material. IEEE Trans Compon Hybrids Manuf Technol. 1994;17(24):B3.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Wingert PC, Leung CH. Comparison of the inherent arc erosion behaviors of silver-cadmium oxide and silver-tin oxide contact materials. IEEE Trans Compon Hybrids Manuf Technol. 1987;10(1):56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    McDonnell D, Gardener J, Gondusky J. Comparison of the switching behavior of internally oxidized and powder metallurgical silver metal oxide contact materials. In: Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Pittsburgh; 1993. 37.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Behrens V, Honig T, Kraus A, Michal R, Saeger KE, Schmidberger R, Staneff T. An advanced silver/tin oxide contact material. In: Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Pittsburgh; 1993. 19.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Nath D. Comparative behavior of silver tin oxide and silver cadmium oxide contact materials in commercially available contactors. In: Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Montreal; 1990. 126.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Talijan N, Cosovi V, Staji-Troši J, Gruji A, Zivkovic D, Romhanji E. Microstructure and properties of silver based cadmium free electrical contact materials. J Min Metall. 2007;43B(2):171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Röhberg J, Honig T, Witulski N, Finkbeiner M, Behrens V. Performance of different silver/tin oxide contact materials for applications in low voltage circuit breakers. In: Proceedings of the 55th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Vancouver; 2009. 187.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Ivanov V, Nikolaeva S, Sidorak A, Shubin A, Sidorak V. Ag/ZnO and Ag/SnO2, Electrocontact materials obtained from fine-grained coprecipitated powder mixture. J Sib Fed Univ Chem. 2012;5(2):131.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Witter G, Chen Z. A comparison of silver tin indium oxide contact materials using a new model switch that simulates operation of an automotive relay. In: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts and the 22nd International Conference on Electrical Contacts, Seattle; 2004. 382.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Chen ZK, Witter GJ. A study of dynamic welding of electrical contacts with emphasis on the effects of oxide content for silver tin indium oxide contacts. In: Proceedings of the 56th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Charleston; 2010. 1.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Jeannot D, Pinard J, Ramoni P, Jost EM. Physical and chemical properties of metal oxide additions to Ag–SnO2 contact materials and predictions of electrical performance. IEEE Trans Compon Hybrids Manuf Technol. 1994;17:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Wang H. Influence of rare earth on the wetting ability of AgSnO2 contact material. Rare Met Mater Eng. 2014;43(8):1846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Rong MZ, Wang QP. Effects of additives on the AgSnO2 contacts erosion behavior. In: Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Pittsburgh; 1993. 33.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Leung C, Streicher E, Fitzgerald D, Cook J. Contact erosion of Ag/SnO2/In2O3 made by internal oxidation and powder metallurgy. In: Proceedings of the 52nd IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Montréal; 2006. 143.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Gardener J, McDonnell D. The impact of process changes on the physical properties and formability of silver metal oxide contact materials. In: Proceedings of the 41st IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Montreal; 1995. 373.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Chen ZK, Witter GJ. Comparison in performance for silver-tin-indium oxide materials made by internal oxidation and powder metallurgy. In: Proceedings of the 55th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Vancouver; 2009. 182.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Wang J, Wen M, Wang B, Lu J. Study on a new contact material Ag/SnO2–La2O3–Bi2O3. In: Proceedings of the 47th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Montréal; 2001. 94.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Wang H, Wang J, Wen M, Zhao J, Liu G. Preparation of Ag/SnO2+La2O3+Bi2O3 contact material electrical contacts. In: Proceedings of the 52nd IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Montréal; 2006. 131.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Mutzel T, Niederreuther R. Advanced silver-tin oxide contact materials for relay application. In: Proceedings of the 26th Electrical Contacts, Seattle; 2012. 194.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Xiuqing Q, Qianhong S, Lingjie Z, Lawson C, Xianping F, Hui Y. A novel method for the preparation of Ag/SnO2 electrical contact material. Rare Met Mater Eng. 2014;43(11):2614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Xiong Q, Wang S, Xie M, Chen Y, Zhang J, Wang S. AgSnO2 electrical contact material prepared by spark plasma sintering. Precious Met. 2013;34(4):12.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Pandey A, Verma P, Pandey OP. Comparison of properties of silver-tin oxide electrical contact materials through different processing routes. Indian J Eng Mater Sci. 2008;15(3):236.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Lungu M, Gavriliu S, Canta T, Lucaci M, Enescu E. Ag–SnO2 sintered electrical contacts with ultrafine and uniformly dispersed microstructure. J Optoelectron Adv Mater. 2006;8(2):576.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Lorrain N, Chaffron L, Carry C, Delcroix P, Le Caër G. Kinetics and formation mechanisms of the nanocomposite powder Ag–SnO2 prepared by reactive milling. Mater Sci Eng A. 2004;367:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Zoz H, Ren H, Spath S. Improved Ag–SnO2 electrical contact material produced by mechanical alloying. Metallurgy. 1999;53(7–8):423.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Orrų R, Licheri R, Locchi AM, Cincotti A, Cao GC. Consolidation/synthesis of materials by electric current activated/assisted sintering. Mater Sci Eng R. 2009;63:127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Brisson E, Carre P, Desplats H, Rogeon P, Keryvin V, Bonhomme A. Effective thermal and electrical conductivities of AgSnO2 during sintering. Part I: experimental characterization and mechanisms. Metall Mater Trans A. 2016;47(12):6304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Maca K, Pouchly V, Boccaccini AR. Sintering densification curve—a practical approach for its construction from dilatometric shrinkage data. Sci Sinter. 2008;40:117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Touloukian YS, Kirby RK, Taylor RE, Desai PD. Thermophysical properties of matter, vol. 12. New York: IFI Plenum; 1975. 298.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Samsonov GV. In: Samsonov GV, editor. The Oxide Handbook. 2nd ed. New York: IFI/Plenum; 1982. 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Chang SY, Lin SJ, Flemings MC. Thermal expansion behavior of silver matrix composites. Metall Mater Trans A. 2000;31:291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Koh JC, Fortini A. Prediction of thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of porous metallic materials. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 1973;16:2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Montes JM, Cuevas FG, Cintas J. Porosity effect on the electrical conductivity of sintered powder compacts. Appl Phys A. 2008;92:375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Argento C, Bouvard D. Modeling the effective conductivity of random packing of spheres through densification. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 1996;39:1343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Nonferrous Metals Society of China and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Engineering, IRDL, FRE CNRS 3744University of South BrittanyLorientFrance
  2. 2.Schneider Electric – ElectropoleGrenoble Cedex 9France

Personalised recommendations