Diurnal Periodicity of the Pond Frogs in the Western Ghats of India
- 47 Downloads
Diurnal periodicity of abundance (total, male and female) and behavior (resting, feeding and croaking) of the frogs Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, E. hexadactylus and Hoplobatrachus tigerinus inhabiting in ponds of the Western Ghats at different altitudes (high, mid and foothill) have been investigated during three seasons (monsoon, post-monsoon and summer). Irrespective of seasons, the air and water temperatures were significantly lower during night than day in all locations (p < 0.001) and the humidity was significantly higher in high-altitude (p < 0.05) than other locations. Total abundance was significantly high only during night in mid-altitude inhabiting frog E. hexadactylus (p < 0.05). The resting behavior was significantly lower during night than day in all frogs, while it was opposite for croaking behavior. The feeding behavior was significantly higher during day than night in E. cyanophlyctis (p < 0.05). Total abundance was significantly correlated with abundance of females. Three hourly observations up to 24 h revealed consistently high total as well as female abundance during monsoon than other seasons. The resting and feeding behaviors of frogs gradually decreased from day towards night, while croaking behavior gradually increased from 5 pm onwards and reached a peak at 8 pm and decreased further. Studies on the influence of environmental variables on the behavior of frogs in their native/natural habitats and in mesocosms will be rewarding to follow up their rehabilitation and conservation.
KeywordsFrogs Western Ghats Ponds Diurnal periodicity Behavior Abundance
Authors are grateful to Mangalore University for granting permission to carry out this study. MPK acknowledges the support of Mangalore University and University Grants Commission for the award of research fellowship under Faculty Improvement Program. MPK also thanks the support of Principal Dr. Puspa Kuttanna, FMKMC College, Madikeri for encouragement. The authors are indebted to the concern of reviewers and editor for constructive suggestions to improve the quality of the article.
- Alexander, P.S., A.C. Alcalas, and D.Y. Wu. 1979. Annual reproductive pattern in the rice frog Rana limnocharis in Taiwan. Journal of Asian Ecology 1: 68–79.Google Scholar
- Beshkov, V.A., and D.L. Jameson. 1980. Movement and abundance of the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata. Herpetologica 36: 365–370.Google Scholar
- Biju, S.D., S. Yogesh, A. Dubois, S.K. Dutta, and F. Bossuyt. 2010. A ground dwelling rhacophorid frog from the highest mountain peak of the Western Ghats of India. Current Science 98: 1119–1125.Google Scholar
- Canavero, A., M. Arim, D.E. Naya, A. Camargo, I. Rosa, and R. Maneyro. 2008. Calling activity patterns in an anuran assemblage: The role of seasonal trends and weather determinants. North-West Journal of Zoology 4: 29–41.Google Scholar
- Cohen, M.P., and R.A. Alford. 1996. Factors affecting diurnal shelter use by the cane toad, Bufo marinus. Herpetologica 52: 172–181.Google Scholar
- Daniels, R.J.R. 2005. Amphibians of peninsular India. Hyderabad: Universities press (India) Private Limited.Google Scholar
- Daniels, R.J.R. 1991. The problem of conserving amphibians in the Western Ghats, India. Current Science 60: 630–632.Google Scholar
- Daugherty, C.H., and A.L. Sheldon. 1982. Age specific movement patterns of the frog Ascaphus truei. Herpetologica 38: 468–474.Google Scholar
- Delgado, M.J., A.L. Alonso-Gómez, B. Gancedo, N. De Pedro, A.I. Valenciano, and M. Alonso-Bedate. 1993. Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and melatonin levels in the frog retina are not correlated during the seasonal cycle. General and Comparative Endocrinology 92: 143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dinesh, K.P., C. Radhakrishnan, K.V. Gururaja, and G.K. Bhatta. 2009. An annotated checklist of Amphibia with some insights into the patterns of species discoveries, distribution and endemism. Records Zoological Survey of India—Occasional Paper 302: 1–152.Google Scholar
- Duellman, W.E., and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of amphibians. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka (checklist and bibliography). Bhubaneswar: Odyssey Publishing House.Google Scholar
- Espino del Castillo, A.E., G. Castaño-Meneses, M.J. Dávila-Montes, M. Miranda-Anaya, J.B. Morales-Malacara, and R. Paredes-León. 2009. Seasonal distribution and circadian activity in the troglophile long-footed robber frog, Eleutherodactylus longipes (Anura: Brachycephalidae) at Los Riscos Cave, Querétaro, Mexico: Field and laboratory studies. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 71: 24–31.Google Scholar
- Frost, D.R. 2011. Amphibian species of the world—Version # 4. New York: American Museum of Natural History. http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. Accessed 1 June 2017.
- Frost, D.R. 2008. Amphibian species of the world—An online reference Version # 5.2 (July 15, 2008). New York: American Museum of Natural History. http://research.amnh.orgjherpetologyjamphibiajindex.php. Accessed 1 June 2017.
- Kadadevaru, G.G., R.D. Kanmadi, and H. Schneider. 1998. Mating call of the burrowing frog, Ramanella Montana (Jerdon 1859). Journal of Advanced Zoology 19: 91–93.Google Scholar
- Khan, M.S. 1973. Food of the tiger frog Rana tigerina Daudin. Biologia 19: 93–107.Google Scholar
- Krishna, S.N., and J. Bosch. 2007. The breeding behaviour and advertisement calls of the tree-hole breeding frog Ramanella montana (Microdylidae) in the Western Ghats, S. India. Acta Zoologica Sinica 53: 575–578.Google Scholar
- Shoemaker, V.H., S.H. Hillman, S.D. Hillyard, D.C. Jackson, L.L. Mclanahan, P.C. Withers, and M.L. Wygoda. 1992. Exchange of water, ions, and respiratory gases in terrestrial amphibians. In Environmental physiology of amphibians, ed. M.E. Feder and W.W. Burggren, 183–200. Chicago: University of Chicago press.Google Scholar
- StatSoft Inc. 2008. Statistica, Version # 8. Tulsa: StatSoft Inc.Google Scholar
- Wagner Jr., W.E. 1989. Social correlates of variations in male calling behavior in Blanchard’s cricket frog, Acaris crepitans Blanchard. Ethology 30: 27–45.Google Scholar
- Weerawardhena, S.R., S.W. Kotagama, and U.S. Amarasinghe. 2000. Food, feeding chronology and seasonal changes in the diet of green frog Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834). In Annual research symposium, 16. Colombo: Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Kelaniya.Google Scholar
- Wiest, J.A. 1982. Anuran succession at temporary ponds in a post Oak-Savanna region of Texas. United States Fish and Wildlife Research Report 13: 39–47.Google Scholar