Proceedings of the Zoological Society

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 290–300 | Cite as

Diurnal Periodicity of the Pond Frogs in the Western Ghats of India

  • Muthunaidu P. Krishna
  • Kanale S. Sreepada
  • Kandikere R. SridharEmail author
  • Amin Hemachandra
Research Article


Diurnal periodicity of abundance (total, male and female) and behavior (resting, feeding and croaking) of the frogs Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, E. hexadactylus and Hoplobatrachus tigerinus inhabiting in ponds of the Western Ghats at different altitudes (high, mid and foothill) have been investigated during three seasons (monsoon, post-monsoon and summer). Irrespective of seasons, the air and water temperatures were significantly lower during night than day in all locations (p < 0.001) and the humidity was significantly higher in high-altitude (p < 0.05) than other locations. Total abundance was significantly high only during night in mid-altitude inhabiting frog E. hexadactylus (p < 0.05). The resting behavior was significantly lower during night than day in all frogs, while it was opposite for croaking behavior. The feeding behavior was significantly higher during day than night in E. cyanophlyctis (p < 0.05). Total abundance was significantly correlated with abundance of females. Three hourly observations up to 24 h revealed consistently high total as well as female abundance during monsoon than other seasons. The resting and feeding behaviors of frogs gradually decreased from day towards night, while croaking behavior gradually increased from 5 pm onwards and reached a peak at 8 pm and decreased further. Studies on the influence of environmental variables on the behavior of frogs in their native/natural habitats and in mesocosms will be rewarding to follow up their rehabilitation and conservation.


Frogs Western Ghats Ponds Diurnal periodicity Behavior Abundance 



Authors are grateful to Mangalore University for granting permission to carry out this study. MPK acknowledges the support of Mangalore University and University Grants Commission for the award of research fellowship under Faculty Improvement Program. MPK also thanks the support of Principal Dr. Puspa Kuttanna, FMKMC College, Madikeri for encouragement. The authors are indebted to the concern of reviewers and editor for constructive suggestions to improve the quality of the article.


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Copyright information

© Zoological Society, Kolkata, India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muthunaidu P. Krishna
    • 1
  • Kanale S. Sreepada
    • 1
  • Kandikere R. Sridhar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Amin Hemachandra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Applied ZoologyMangalore UniversityMangalagangotri, MangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiosciencesMangalore UniversityMangalagangotri, MangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologySt. Aloysius CollegeMangaloreIndia

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