Proceedings of the Zoological Society

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 111–117 | Cite as

Determination of Chronic Median Lethal Concentration of Sodium Fluoride in Drosophila melanogaster and Exploring Effect of Sub-lethal Concentrations on Differential Hemocyte Count

  • Moumita Dutta
  • Prem Rajak
  • Sumedha RoyEmail author
Research Article


The prerequisite for toxicity assessment of any chemical is the determination of its median lethal concentrations and thus, this study initiates with determination of chronic median lethal concentration of sodium fluoride (NaF) in a non-target organism Drosophila melanogaster, which was found to be 125–130 µg/mL. Further, chronic exposure to NaF at sub-lethal concentrations (10–100 µg/mL) resulted in significant reduction in total hemocyte number in general and plasmatocytes in particular, whereas, crystal cells were significantly increased in number. Since hemocytes are an integral part of innate immune system in Drosophila, their numerical fluctuation confirms fluoride-induced compromise in innate immunity status of Drosophila.


Fluoride Fruit fly LC50 Trypan blue 



The authors are grateful to the Head, DST-FIST, DST-PURSE and UGC-DRS sponsored Department of Zoology, the University of Burdwan for providing the infrastructural facilities. Thanks are due to Dr. A. Mazumdar for kindly providing microscopic facilities.


  1. Anuradha, C.D., S. Kanno, and S. Hirano. 2001. Oxidative damage to mitochondria is a preliminary step to caspase-3 activation in fluoride-induced apoptosis in HL- 60 cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 31: 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashburner, M., K.G. Golic, and R.S. Hawley. 2005. Drosophila: a laboratory handbook, 2nd ed, 162–164. New York, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ballarin, L., V. Covre, L. Masiero, and S. Casellato. 2014. Immunotoxic effects of fluoride on the hemocytes of Venerupis philippinarum. Information Systems Journal 11: 22–29.Google Scholar
  4. Bhatnagar, M., P. Rao, A. Saxena, R. Bhatnagar, P. Meena, S. Barbar, A. Chouhan, and S. Vimal. 2006. Biochemical changes in brain and other tissues of young adult female mice from F in their drinking water. Fluoride 39: 280–284.Google Scholar
  5. Crossley, A.C.S. 1964. An experimental analysis of the origins and physiology of hemocytes in the blue bottle blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala (Meig.). Journal of Experimental Zoology 157: 375–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Das, S, R Maiti, and D Ghosh. 2006 Fluoride-Induced Immunotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat: A Correlative Approach to Oxidative Stress. Journal of Immunotoxicology 3(2):
  7. Dutta, M., P. Rajak, S. Khatun, and S. Roy. 2017. Toxicity assessment of sodium fluoride in Drosophila melanogaster after chronic sub-lethal exposure. Chemosphere 166: 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Finney, D.J. 1971. Probit analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Guven, A., and N. Kaya. 2005. Effect of fluoride intoxication on lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione in Tuj sheep. Fluoride 38: 139–142.Google Scholar
  10. Hamilton, A.J., and B.L. Gomez. 2002. Melanins in fungal pathogens. Journal of Medical Microbiology 51: 189–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karube, H., G. Nishitai, K. Inageda, H. Kurosu, and M. Matsuoka. 2009. NaF activates MAPKs and induces apoptosis in odontoblast-like cells. Journal of Dental Research 88: 461–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Meister, M., and M. Lagueux. 2003. Drosophila blood cells. Cellular Microbiology 5: 573–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mishra, M., A. Sharma, A.K. Shukla, P. Pragya, R.C. Murthy, D. de Pomerai, U.N. Dwivedi, and D.K. Chowdhuri. 2013. Transcriptomic analysis provides insights on hexavalent chromium induced DNA double strand breaks and their possible repair in midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Mutation Research. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2013.04.005.Google Scholar
  14. Mitchell, B., and R.A. Gerdes. 1973. Mutagenic effects of sodium and stannous fluoride upon Drosophila melanogaster. Fluoride 6: 113–117.Google Scholar
  15. Podder, S., A. Chattopadhyay, and S. Bhattacharya. 2008a. In vivo suppression by fluoride of chromosome aberrations induced by mitomycin-c in mouse bone marrow cells. Fluoride 41: 40–43.Google Scholar
  16. Podder, S., A. Chattopadhyay, S. Bhattacharya, and M.R. Ray. 2008b. Differential in-vivo genotoxic effects of lower and higher concentrations of fluoride in mouse bone marrow cells. Fluoride 41: 301–307.Google Scholar
  17. Podder, S., and S. Roy. 2013. Study of the changes in life cycle parameters of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to fluorinated insecticide, cryolite. Toxicology and Industrial Health 31: 1341–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rajak, P., M. Dutta, and S. Roy. 2014. Effect of acute exposure of acephate on hemocyte abundance in a non-target victim Drosophila melanogaster. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 96: 768–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rajak, P., S. Sahana, and S. Roy. 2013. Acephate-induced shortening of developmental duration and early adult emergence in a non-target insect Drosophila melanogaster. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 95: 1369–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rizki, R.M., and T.M. Rizki. 1980. The direction of evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup based on functional analyses of the crystal cells. Journal of Experimental Zoology 212: 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shrestha, R., and E. Gateff. 1982. Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the cell types in the larval hematopoietic organs and hemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster. Development, Growth and Differentiation 24: 65–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tan, K.L., I. Vlisidou, and W. Wood. 2014. Ecdysone mediates the development of immunity in the Drosophila embryo. Current Biology 24: 1145–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ware, G.W., and D.M. Whitacre. 2004. An introduction to insecticides. Ohio: Willoughby.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Zoological Society, Kolkata, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Toxicology Research Unit, Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of ZoologyThe University of BurdwanBurdwanIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyABN Seal CollegeCooch BeharIndia

Personalised recommendations